e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic <p>Conference e-proceedings from the Faculty of Agriculture International Conferences are contained here.</p> <p>The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the editorial board but of individual authors. The Editorial board of the <strong><em>Faculty of Agriculture International Conference</em></strong><strong> (FAIC) </strong>appreciates those who subscribe to the journal, reviewers and the consulting editors for their contributions.</p> <p>Authors are to send their articles through:</p> <p><a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> or <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a></p> Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka en-US e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference Sustainable Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Climate Change Response https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/2107 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nkiru T. Meludu Eucharia A. Obidiebube Onyekachi Chukwu Chika F. Ikeogu Ikeogu Copyright (c) 2023 Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 1 477 Nature Conservation for Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change Response https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1881 <p><em>Keynote Address presented on the Occasion of the 1st Faculty of Agriculture International Conference (Hybrid), Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Held at the University Auditorium, Awka Campus of the University from 23rd to 24th March 2023, on the First Day Being Thursday 23 March 2023.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Charles A. Igwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 xi xvi The Study of Agriculture in the Universities and the new Core Curriculum Minimum Academic Standards (CCMAS) of the National Universities Commission (NUC) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1874 <p><strong>PROLOGUE</strong><br><br>"The man who farms as his forefathers did cannot produce much food no matter how rich the land or how hard he works. The farmer who has access to and knows how to use what science knows about soils, plants, animals, and machines can produce abundance of food though the land be poor. Nor need he work nearly so hard and long. He can produce so much that his brothers and some of his neighbours will move to town to earn their living." ––T W Schultz (1964) (Noble Prize winner for Economics, 1979)</p> <p>Dear friends and colleagues, at some point, I will come back to this statement by Prof. Theodore Schultz. That is all I say about that for now.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Chinedum Nwajiuba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 1 6 Effects of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) on Smallholder Oil Palm Farming Activities in Agbo Delta State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1876 <p><em>The growing policy concern on the environment cannot be significantly addressed without strict measures in the case of POME. POME is a highly environmental pollution produced by smallholder oil palm mill operators that affects farming activities and its environment. This study was done to analyze the effects of POME on smallholder oil palm farming activities in Agbo, Delta State with the objectives of examining the socioeconomic features of the farmers and determining the effects of POME on their farming activities. A purposive sampling method was employed to randomly select a sample size of 30 smallholder oil palm farmers and analyzed with descriptive statistics and regression model. The result showed that majority of them were in their middle / old age of 40 to 60 years with 66.7% married while 60% of them had family size of 6 and above and 83.7% of 11 years and above farming experiences. The regression result showed that POME had significant and negative effects on age, labour and plant nutrients at 0.05%, farming experience and farm size at 0.1% and household size at 0.01% with positive and significant effects on soil management practices at 0.1% and annual income at 0.05%. The study recommends a synergy between the farmers and biotechnological and allied research centres in connection with the Ministry of Environment through education/ training on the use of biotechnological tools, POME treatment technologies and intensified soil management practices in their operations to control, maintain and regulate their activities for a friendly and sustainable environment.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. A. Okere T. O. Okoronkwo C. C. Apeh E. Unuabonah C. O. Okeke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 8 12 Integrated Application of Wood Ash and Inorganic Fertilizers on The Growth and Yield of Garden Egg (Solanum aethiopicum L.) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1877 <p><em>Wood ash is one of the commonly available organic wastes in Nigeria because firewood is a common source of fuel for both rural and urban dwellers and can become an important alternative source of inorganic potassium especially for farmers in areas with acidic soils. Treatments consisted of the application of inorganic fertilizer sources (0 kg ha-1, 130.44 kg ha-1 urea and 300 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10) and wood ash (0 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1 ash and 10 t ha-1 ash) to garden egg seedlings in the field using 3 x 3 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications. Main effect of wood ash showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) fruit yield in this order: 10 t ha-1 of wood ash &gt; control &gt; 5 t ha-1 of wood ash. The main effect of inorganic fertilizer sources on fruit yield followed this sequence: 300 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 &gt; 130.44 kg ha-1 Urea &gt; control. The interaction of 10 t ha-1 of wood ash and 300 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 produced highest fruit yield (57 t ha-1) while 5 t ha-1 of wood ash produced lowest fruit yield (10.70 t ha-1). Therefore, the application of integrated 10 t ha-1 of wood ash and 300 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 for improved growth and yield of garden egg is recommended to farmers in Awka.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> N. A. Okoli I. C. Nwafor T. Unuabonah L. C. Emma-Okafor B. O. Nwosu C. U. Onwuchekwa I. I. Ibeawuchi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 13 19 Regeneration of sectioned seeds of Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. (Fluted pumpkin) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1883 <p><em>There is an acute shortage of Telfairia seeds during growing season, due to seed recalcitrance and the alternative uses to which the seeds are put. An experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which the seed of Telfairia occidentalis can be sectioned for the regeneration of propagules and to assess the growth response of the sectioned seeds. Pre-germinated seeds were sectioned into minisetts up to 32 per seeds. These were nursed for three (3) weeks and transplanted to the field in randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Whole seeds and seeds sectioned into two had the highest seedling emergence and reached their peaks at the end of 2 weeks after sowing. The least value of 30% seedling emergence was produced by seeds sectioned into 32. The vine growths of the whole seed (141 cm) and those sectioned into two (107 cm) were consistently and significantly higher than those of smaller seed sections that ranged from 16 - 84 cm. The relatively higher vigor expressed by whole seed over the sectioned seeds is probably due to the relatively higher food reserve in the former. The result obtained in this experiment has shown that it is possible to regenerate Telfairia occidentalis propagules by the use of seed sectioned up to 16. It is recommended that future studies should address the need to upgrade the seedlings emergence of sectioned seeds to achieve 100% survival in the nursery, and excellent plant stand in the field.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> I. M. Ojeifo F. Onori E. A. Obdiebube Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 20 26 Intercropping Impact on Weed Dry Matter, Soil C/N content and Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Productivity https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1884 <p><em>The effects of intercropping on weed dry matter, soil C and N, and sugarcane productivity were investigated at Badeggi, Nigeria in 2016 and 2017. The results revealed that application of Sugarcane + Groundnut intercropping produced lower weed dry matter comparable to Sugarcane + Soybean intercropping which significantly increased growth and yield attributes of sugarcane. Application of Sugarcane + Groundnut intercropping, resulted in a comparable germination count, Tiller count, plant and stalk height with Soybean intercropping. It generated taller plants and stalks, more girth, brix content, millable cane, stools and cane yield. Similarly, Sugarcane + Groundnut intercropping and Soybean intercropping produced comparable stalk height and brix content. In conclusion, application of Sugarcane + Groundnut intercropping or Soybean intercropping effectively controlled weeds, increased Soil C and N, plant and stalk height, girth, brix content, millable cane, stools and cane yield of sugarcane.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M.S. Bassey Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 27 31 Impacts of Selected Plant Extracts on Three Solanacea Cultivars Nursery Development https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1885 <p><em>A trial was carried out at the nursery unit, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka to evaluate the impacts of three plant extracts(Siam, Bitter leaf and Moringa) on the growth parameters and biomass of three solanacea nursery crops(tomato, garden egg and pepper).The Randomized completely block design experiment was replicated three times. Despite crop type, moringa extract significantly enhanced early germination and emergence % of all the tested crops, Throughout the course of the work bitter leaf extract produced the biggest fresh and dry bio masses, tomato(28.13g and 3.37g), pepper(84.10g and 10,0g) and garden egg(50.10g and 6.10g).Bitter leaf extract also produced the tallest plants followed by moringa extract. While leaf area of the tested crops were significantly improved by the extracts, leaf number seemed to be controlled genetically. Plant extracts contain bio stimulants, bio pesticides, hormones, vitamins and minerals that can promote plant growth and increase plant response on stress .Generally, these plant extracts are readily available, cheap and easy to prepare and apply. We therefore recommend the use of these extracts in raising nursery crops and growing crops in the field especially bitter leaf and moringa extracts which are environmentally friendly and sustainable.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B. Nwosu H. Okolie E. A. Obdiebube C. L. John R. Ike C. Onwuchekwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 32 37 Productivity of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Cultivars in Ibadan, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1886 <p><em>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity of 20 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cultivars in Ibadan, Nigeria. The cultivars evaluated were obtained from the Department of Agronomy sweet potato germplasm multiplication field and were planted 30cm apart on the crest of ridges 3m long in a randomized block complete design (RCBD) with four replications. Observation and data were collected on number of leaves, main vines length, percentage survival, percentage ground cover, number of tubers per plant, fresh root and shoot yield. Result showed that there were significant differences (P &lt; 0.05) among the cultivars evaluated. The number of leaves produced by the cultivars ranged from 109 to 205. Cultivar Eruwa-cream produced the highest number of leaves, while cv ‘Barth’ had the least at 12 WAP. Mean length of the main vine ranged from 84.69cm (cv TIS 86/0356) to 231.54cm (cv 440293). Percentage survival and percentage ground cover ranges from 80.0% (cv V005) to 100.0% (cv TIS 86/0356) and 25.3% (cv V003) to 79.0% (cv V084) at 10 WAP respectively. Maximum number of tubers (3.45/plant) was produced by cultivar 199034.1; this was significantly higher than the least (0.65/plant) which was obtained from cultivar V003. Cultivars V087 and Benue produced maximum fresh root yield (17.72 to 18.92 t/ha) while cultivars 440293, Benue, TIS 86/0356 and Eruwa-cream produced significant higher fresh shoot yield than all the other cultivars (12.13 to 16.42 t/ha). This study revealed the potentials of different cultivars for diverse use ranging from breeding, weed suppression, to consumption.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.O. Lawal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 38 43 Analysis of Sustainable Small Scale Catfish Farming in South Eastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1887 <p><em>Small scale Catfish farming involves the rearing of catfish under controlled conditions for socio-economic benefits. It is regarded as excellent aquaculture specie because it grows fast, tolerates extreme temperature, and has a good feed conversion rate. Engaging in small scale catfish production is a way of substantially improving the demand-supply gap currently experienced in the industry. The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of the small scale catfish farmers in the study area, analysed the cost and returns of farmers and examined the influence of socio-economic characteristics on Net-income. Primary data used for the study was collected using well-structured questionnaires which were administered to sampled catfish farmers. In analyzing the data, descriptive statistical tools (frequency counts, means and percentages), enterprise budgeting techniques (Gross margin, Net-farm income) and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyse the data. The Return on Investment was ₦1.51 and it implies that the catfish production enterprise generated 1.51 times more income than expenses incurred for the production. In addition, the result indicates a Gross ratio of 66% and a Profitability Index (PI) of 0.34 which means that for every naira earned as revenue, 0.34kobo was returned to the farmer as net income. Out of the nine independent variables included in the model, five; (age, educational attainment, experience, flock size and membership of farmer’s society) were statistically significance while the rest were not significance. This result indicated that catfish production is a highly lucrative enterprise to venture into in the study area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> N. R. Chiekezie Ozor M. U. E. C. Nwankwo C. O. Ositanwosu N.J. Obiekwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 44 50 Effect of Selected Organic Soil Amendments on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties, Growth and Yield Of yellow Pepper (Capsicum annum) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1888 <p><em>A field experiment to investigate the effects of different forms of organic manure on physico-chemical properties of clayey loam ultisol, growth and yield performance of yellow pepper plants, Capsicum annum (L.) var. was carried out at the Research Farm of the Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replications. Treatments used were 10t/ha cassava peel biochar (CPBC), 10t/ha poultry manure (PM), 10t/ha cow dung (CD) and 5t/ha+5t/ha of their various combinations with one control. Morphological data were collected at two weeks interval after transplanting. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA. Significant mean differences were separated using LSD(0.05). At 12WAP, plants that received a combination of PM and CP had significantly higher heights, while the widest leaf area (116.6cm2) was obtained from those that had CD.Highest fruit weight per plant was recorded with cow dung (0.63kg), while cow dung + poultry had the highest number of fruit (170.3). The pH of the amended plot ranged from 4.73-4.99. The exchangeable bases (Ca2+ and Mg2+) were significantly higher in the plot amended with cassava peel biochar with values of 1.76cmol/kg and 1.44cmol/kg, compared to other amendments. There was also, significantly higher Organic Carbon values in the plots amended with Poultry manure. Based on the results, it could be deduced that the plot amended with cow dung + poultry manure significantly improved the soil fertility. Therefore, should be recommended for yellow pepper production in the study area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ike C. R. O. E. Ngwu I. K. Okore E. A. Nwosu F. O. Asiegbu C. L. Orakwe H. Okolie Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 51 54 Early and Late-Season Maize Landraces Performance on Selected Weed Control Practices https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1889 <p><em>This experiment was conducted in 2021 and 2022 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, to assess the performance of selected weed control methods under rain fed maize production in three different successive months. This study was laid out as a 3x4 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The selected cultivars was the main factors (Oka Bende, Oka Abakaliki and Oka Nsukka) while the four weed control method (Check [No weeding], Hoe weeding, Pre-emergence and post emergence) consisted of the sub-factor. The selected maize landraces responded positively to the weed control methods especially ‘Oka Nsukka’ and ‘Oka Bende’ in both seasons and adapted easily in Igbariam. Oka Nsukka, in the early season, gave the best grain weight per 100 seeds followed by Oka Bende while Oka Abakaliki had the best grain yield in the late season planting. The results obtained indicated that, a combination of pre-emergence herbicide and hoe weeding at 6WAS ensured that the weeds are adequately controlled and yield maximized.</em></p> I. Uko E.N. Ngonadi B.O. Ikenwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 55 61 Growth and Yield Responses of two Accessions of Bitter Leaf to Stem Pruning https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1890 <p><em>A two season (rainy and dry seasons) experiment was conducted to determine the effects of stem pruning on growth and leaf yield of two accessions of bitter leaf in 2021 and 2022 cropping seasons. The experiment was carried out at the Demonstration Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The two accessions (Nimo and Nnewi) received four levels of stem pruning which were no pruning, pruning to 1, 2 and 3 stems. The experiment was laid out as a 2 x 4 factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The result indicated that stem pruning had significant (P&lt;0.05) effect on the growth and leaf yield of bitter leaf. The tallest plants, highest number of leaves, widest stems, highest leaf fresh and dry weight were observed in plants that were pruned to 3 stems while unpruned plants significantly (P&lt;0.05) produced the lowest mean values for both growth and leaf yield. Growth and leaf yield did not show significance among the accession though results showed that Nimo accession produced higher number of leaves, tallest plant and highest fresh leaf yield in the two seasons. Combined effect of stem pruning and accessions showed that pruning Nimo accession to 3 stems produced most vigorous plants and highest leaf yield. Considering the results obtained, stem pruning of bitter leaf, especially Nimo accession, to 3 stems was recommended for farmers in Awka since it recorded most vigorous plants and highest leaf yield.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> U.N. Edum O.O. Ndukwe N.J. Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 62 66 Soil Physicochemical Properties, Growth and Development of Sweet Melon (Cucumis melo L.) as Influenced by some Organic Amendments at Awka, South Eastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1891 <p><em>A study on the soil physicochemical properties and agronomy of sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.) as influenced by different organic amendments was conducted at the Soil Science and Land Resources Management Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments, replicated three times. The treatments were: Bat manure (10t/ha), Pig manure (10t/ha), Dry neem leaves (10t/ha), Poultry manure (10t/ha), and a control (0t/ha). Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Genstat4th edition statistical software. Means were separated usingFisher’s Least Significant Difference (F-LSD) at 5% probability level. The results obtained showed that the application of organic amendments had significant effects on some soil physical properties but did not significantly affect any of the chemical parameters tested. Meanwhile, some growth parameters studied as well as the yield component showed significant differences among the various treatments at 3, 6 and 9weeks after planting (WAP). Bat Guano recorded the highest values for most physical properties, growth parameters and fruit weight, and is closely followed by poultry manure. Though soil chemical properties did not show statistical significant differences, application of organic amendments resulted to increased value of soil organic carbon, Total N, pH, CEC, and exchangeable bases. Bat manure though scarce, is recommended for farmers to be used in the production of Sweet Melon in the study area for higher yield and an alternative manure source for sustainable soil fertility management.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.O. Onunwa I. Uko C.S. Ozoagu C. J. Nwaiwu J. E. Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 67 71 Adoption of Sustainable Farming Practices amidst Climate Change Incidence by Crop Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1893 <p>Sustainable agriculture amidst climate change incidence in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was examined. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 140 crop farmers who were<br>administered with questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using descriptive<br>statistics, logit model and the local average treatment model. Results shows that the crop farmers were married (72.1%), more of males (70.7%), relatively educated (Mean = 12) and were in their productive age (51) years. Crop rotation (94.3%), bush fallowing<br>(76.4%), shifting cultivation (98.6%), multiple cropping (100%), and erosion control measures (69.3%) were some of the sustainable agricultural practices adopted by the crop farmers in the State. About (94.3%) of the crop farmers adopted these practices against 6% that did not adopt. Age, sex, education, farm size, extension contacts, and farming experience were the major determinants of sustainable agricultural practices of the farmers. The adoption and use of sustainable farming practices increased land yield<br>and output by (910.03%) and (1211.02%) amidst climate change manifestations.<br>Farmers were recommended to adopt and practice sustainable farming practices to<br>improve crop yield, output and land productivity in the State. This will ensure increased food production and security in the State.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. E. Osuji C.O. Igberi A. H. Odor P. C. Abana U. T. Agunanne R. A. Iheanacho Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 73 79 A Community-Based Approach to Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Through Forest Restoration: A Case Study of Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1894 <p><em>Most developing countries including Nigeria are seriously affected by climate change. The role of indigenous peoples in protecting global forests and therefore regional and global climate stability has been widely recognized. The causes of deforestation in Anambra State are urbanization, land clearing for farming, bush burning for hunting, over-exploitation of medicinal plants, inadequate forest management techniques, highways and building construction. This paper suggests how indigenous communities in Anambra State can sustain their ability to use little available resources to respond to, withstand, adapt and mitigate the effects of climate change through forest restoration. There are 179 communities (Town Unions) spread throughout 21 local government districts in Anambra State. Anambra State Association of Town Unions (ASATU) where each community is represented has a women's wing that unites all the women in the State. It is intended that each community will contribute 1000 tree seedlings, for a total of 179000 tree seedlings. Each community's women shall be responsible for planting the trees in the designated locations. In the foreseeable future, the 179,000 trees planted will lower greenhouse gas emissions that worsen climate change. It would not only reduce the effects of heat waves, floods, and droughts brought on by climate change but would also have several positive economic and social effects. If 675 trees per acre would sequester around 20 tons of CO2 annually for 30 years, it implies that 179000 tree seedlings in Anambra State can sequester 5303.7 tons of CO2 in 30 years if planted.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. C. Okoye Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 80 83. Effect of Planting Methods on the Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota L) in Humid Tropical Zone https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1895 <p><em>The experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; to study the effect of planting methods on the growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L). Two planting methods, direct sowing and transplanting were used as treatments for the experiment, which was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. Data was collected on the growth, yield and root marketability. The collected parameters were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance table and means were separated using Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5 percent level of significance with the GENSTAT 2014 Edition. The results showed no significant variation between the planting methods on the stem girth and leaf number at some dates, while transplanting significantly varied (P&lt;0.05) from direct sowing at 4, 6, 8 and 10 WAP. Planting methods did not affect some parameters (plant biomass, root length, number of roots harvested, fresh weight of leaves, and fresh weight of roots), rather they were statistically similar. Transplanting influenced significantly the root diameter, while the harvest index showed statistical difference between the planting methods, with direct sowing varying significantly. Direct sowing also significantly influenced the root marketability parameters; root uniformity, marketable yield and total marketable root yield percetage. From the results presented, direct sowing had significant effect on root marketability, which is paramount in commercial carrot production. It is thereby recommended that for optimum carrot production and marketability, carrots should be directly sown.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. A. Obdiebube H. Okolie C. Obasi O. O. Ndukwe S. Muojiama P. Eche O. A. Umeh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 84 90 Characterization and Consumption of Edible Insects among Households in Oji River Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1898 <p><em>This research was on characterization and consumption of edible insects among households in Oji River local government area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents used for the study. Data were collected with structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while the hypothesis was tested using simple regression analysis at 5% level of significance. The results revealed that males especially middle aged were more involved in the consumption of edible insects. Large family size of the respondents could be their reason for consuming edible insects to supplement their protein intake. Majority of respondents have basic education hence are well informed of the nutritional value of insects. Majority of the respondents were civil servants and spent between ₦10,000 - ₦20,000 per month on consumption of edible insects. Majority (100%) of the respondents enjoyed eating winged termite, cricket, larva of a species of butterfly (Wiwi or Nwigu) and honey from bee. The hypothesis showed that socio-economic characteristics did not significantly affect the level of consumption of the insects. It was recommended that farming/rearing and harvesting of edible insects should be part of the farming systems in the study area and that more awareness campaigns created.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C. I. Ezeano O. Chukwuigwe A. I. Onwusika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 91 97 Effects of Neem, Gmelina, and African Velvet Tamarind Wood Fuel on the Organoleptic and Shelf Life of Clarias gariepinus https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1899 <p><em>This work aimed to evaluate the effects of smoking African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using wood fuel obtained from Neem (Azadirachta indica), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) and African velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) on the organoleptic properties (appearance, aroma, taste, and texture) and shelf life. The research was conducted at the fish processing unit of the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. A total of 12 matured catfish, 6 males and 6 females which weighed 1kg each were used for the study. After fish preparation, a total of four fish (2 males and 2 females) were smoked in three different smoking kilns using the three wood types. The organoleptic properties of the smoked catfish were analyzed by ten member panel while shelf life was determined by the period of mold and insect infestation. The results indicated that there was no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) in the effects of these wood types on the organoleptic properties assessed. However, catfish smoked with the African velvet tamarind wood had the most preferable organoleptic qualities with a mean score of appearance (4.20±0.92a), aroma (4.30± 0.82a), taste (4.70± 0.67a), and texture (4.10± 0.86a). This was followed by catfish smoked with Gmelina wood with a mean score of appearance (2.90 ±0.88a), aroma (3.00± 0.94a) taste (3.00± 0.67a), and texture (2.90± 1.19a), while catfish smoked with Neem wood had the lowest mean score of appearance (2.00± 0.67a) and texture (2.50± 0.85a). It was also observed that there was no insect attack in all the smoked fish samples during the period of storage. However, catfish smoked with Neem wood showed the highest severity to mold attack (3.00) while fish smoked with Gmelina wood showed no mold attack (0.00). Therefore, these results indicated that fish processing with the use of these woods is effective in extending the shelf-life of smoked African catfish. As a result, the study suggests that the use of African velvet tamarind wood in smoking fish should be adopted to improve the organoleptic properties of smoked catfish which would also increase its profitability.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C. C. Ikechukwu A. C. Umeaniebue C. G. Nwankwo H. Okolie R. C. Onuoha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 98 102 Effect of Charcoal on Soil Physico-Properties in Ndele, Rivers State: Implication for Organic Farming https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1900 <p><em>The study was aimed at evaluating effect of charcoal on the Physico-chemical properties of Ndele soil .The study was conducted during the first farming season at the Teaching and Research Farm Ignatius University of Education Ndele Campus. The design adopted was randomized complete block design (RCBD) , topography was block , five treatments, 0,2, 4,6 and 9 tonsha-1 charcoal . The experimental area was cleared, seed beds were constructed before grounded charcoal was measured and applied in each of the experiment units and each treatment was replicated three times. The duration for experiment was six weeks and soil samples were collected using soil augur at the depth of fifteen centimeters (15cm). The collected samples were taken to laboratory for analysis. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS version and means separated with Duncan multiple range test. It was observed that organiccarbon, moisture, phosphorus (P), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) content of the soil increase as the level of treatment increased from 2 ton ha-1 to 6 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> charcoal. Potassium (P), Zinc (Zn) Calcium (Ca), Boron (Bo) and Chlorine (Cl) content of the soil reduce as the quantity of treatment increased. It was also observed that Fe was not significantly (p&lt; 0.05) different among treatments .Higher treatment 8 tons ha-1had no significant effect on Physico- chemical properties measured. Finally it was observed that the range of 4 tons ha<sup>-1</sup> and 6tons ha<sup>-1</sup>charcoal gave the best concentration of the tested Physico- chemical properties of the soil. It concluded that charcoal should be used to improve the fertility of the soil in Ndele but higher application of 8 tons ha-1 should be avoided.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> G. U. Ukpong G. U. Egbulefu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 103 107 Effect of Different Mulch Materials on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum mill) at Awka, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1902 <p><em>The experiment was conducted at Soil Science and Land Resources Management Research Farm, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, to study the effect of different mulch materials on selected soil properties, growth and yield of tomato. The treatment consisting of four mulch materials (sawdust, rice husk, plastic mulch, dry grasses and a control) were evaluated with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications. Padma 108 f1 hybrid east west tomato seeds were used in the investigation. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference (FLSD) at 5% level of significance. The results of the study indicated that using plastic mulch to grow padma 108 f1 hybrid east west seeds variety for tomato production in the area gave higher yield compared to other treatments. Therefore, application of plastic mulch for tomato production using padma 108 f1 hybrid east west seeds is recommended for tomato producers in the study area. Observations were made on plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, % flowering, % fruiting, which increased on mulched plots than on the control. Soil laboratory results showed that soil pH, soil organic carbon content, available phosphorus and exchangeable cations (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) increased as a result of increase in organic matter with the application of the mulch. Organic mulch precisely Dry Grasses improved the physical properties of the soil.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.O. Onunwa C. J. Nwaiwu C. O. Madueke E. C. Nnabuihe T. V. Nwosu T. Iwuchukwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 108 114 Effect of Different Live Mulches on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Yield of Okra in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1903 <p><em>This experiment was carried out in the Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, to determine the effect of different live mulches on physico-chemical properties of soil and yield of okra. Treatments include cowpea + Okra (CO), Melon + Okra (MO), pumpkin + Okra (PO), Wild ground nut + Okra (WgO) and the control (O). The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Plant height, number of leaf and leaf area index were collected at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting. Soil samples were collected, air dried, sieved and analyzed for physical and chemical properties using outlined standard and scientific methods in the laboratory. Data collected from field and laboratory was subjected to Analysis of Variance while significant means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference at 5%. Results indicated that live mulches conserved soil moisture and reduced bulk density of the soil while increasing soil pH, Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and most basic cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) tested. It also improved growth and development of the crop (okra). Among the live mulches tested, Calopogonium mucunoides(wild ground nut) had better capability of improving soil properties and the growth of okra when compared to other live mulches.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.O. Onunwa J. E. Nwankwo C. J. Nwaiwu C. E. Nwaigwe I. Uko Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 115 120 Multipurpose Tree Species OF Akwa Ibom State and their Non-Timber Forest Products https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1905 <p><em>Multipurpose tree species are trees that have the ability to provide numerous products and perform diverse functions in farming or forestry. They play crucial role in the livelihood of the people of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. . Multipurpose trees are of significant importance as they are major source of Non-timber Forest Product. They produce environmental services such as soil conservation, nitrogen-fixation, Windbreaks, carbon sequestration, soil reclamation, erosion control and beautification. Therefore, integration of multipurpose tree species into an agricultural farmland will give the people economic stability and also control forest destruction. These tree species that provide NTFPs, need special attention and should be incorporated into suitable agroforestry systems. This review article discusses some indigenous multipurpose tree species of Akwa Ibom State that can be incorporated into suitable agroforestry systems.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> N. E. Esiere N.B. Ndulue C. L. Umeh S. I. Udofia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 122 127 Conservation Strategies of Forest Resources: A Path to Sustainability https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1906 <p><em>Forests around the world have been and continue to be threatened by uncontrolled degradation and conversion to other types of land uses, influenced by increasing human needs such as; agricultural expansion and environmentally harmful mismanagement. The current situation necessitates immediate and consistent action to conserve and sustain forest resources so as to maintain ecological balance for supporting life, preserve different kinds of species (biodiversity), make the resources available for present and future generations and ensure the survival of human race. To safeguard this, conservation practices around the globe are shifting away from the indigenous conservation method, emphasizing on the management of natural resources in a manner that ensures higher flow to every stakeholders, particularly rural community members. As a result, conservation strategies that can aid in the development of goals and action plans for the sustainable use of forest resources are been emphasized on, typically by seeking broad-scale consensus through comprehensive consultations. This article therefore reviews the need for conservation of forest resources and conservation strategies in Nigeria.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B.C. Ojomah O. A. Fasoro Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 128 132 Deterrent Methods for Mitigating Crop Raiding By Primates in the Communities around Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1908 <p><em>The study identified the deterrent methods employed to prevent crop damage and economic losses in the Support zones of Kainji Lake National park, Nigeria. There is a general perception that primates living at the edge of reserve boundaries are often agricultural pests. Direct method and structured questionnaire were used to obtain information on preventive methods used and it effectiveness in mitigating crop damage by primates. Purposive sampling technique was used for ten (10) communities with serious presence of human-primate conflict. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting respondents from each community. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test analyses were adopted to investigate the opinions of respondents for significant differences. The results revealed that the various deterrent methods mostly used include, trapping, killing, scare crow, shouting, fencing and stoning which were adopted by 17.8%, 15.5%, 8.9%, 14.5%, 10.2% and 3.3% of the respondents respectively. Majority of the respondents (57.8%) indicated guarding method as the most effective method of preventing crop damage. With respect to the methods and strategies adopted for crop protection, opinions of respondents were also unequally divided, depending on which method or strategy fitted any particular situation (P &lt; 0.05). Guarding method is the most effective method of preventing primates from crop damage in view of their diurnal foraging behaviour. Since most deterrent methods used by local farmers did not take into consideration affordability and use, more methods which must be absolutely effective, affordable and can be operated by the local dwellers be developed.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Modu M. B. Modu Z. B. Yaduma C. A. Lumbonyi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 133 137 Determination of some Anatomical Properties of Acetylated Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.) for Construction Applications https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1909 <p><em>Due to its high specific strength and renewability, bamboo fiber has generated a lot of interest. At the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, five matured bamboo plants (Bambusa vulgaris) with comparable heights and internode counts were cut down at a height of 30 cm above the ground. Modified bamboo test samples with dimensions 20mm (tangentially) x 60mm (longitudinally) x 5mm (radially) as well as the unmodified test samples with the same dimensions from each individual culm were used for this study. Test samples were sliced into match stick size splints with one side blade and placed into test tubes. Splints were macerated with an equal volume (1:1) of 10% glacial acetic acid and 30% Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) at 100±2˚C, the macerated slivers were boiled in a water bath at a temperature of 100°C for 10minutes. Results show that rate of reaction mean range between 0.95 to 1.41% with a marked effect along culm height. Fibre length shows no significant differences between the treated and the untreated samples with a mean of 1.78 to 2.44mm. The fibre diameter, lumen width and cell wall thickness of bamboo showed positive correlation between the treated and the untreated bamboo samples with mean of 9.65 to 13.24μm, 2.35 to 4.62μm and 7.32 to 9.1μm respectively, along the sampling height. The strength of the bamboo fiber is relatively greater among the plant fibers and its superior mechanical properties originate from the intricate lamellar structure of its cell wall is excellent for construction purposes.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. A. Ajayi J. T. B. Riki O. Y. Ogunsanwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 138 145 Effects of Pretreatment Protocol and Watering Regime on the Germination and Early Growth of Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex. O’Rorke) Baill https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1910 <p><em>The early stage of plants is the major determinant of their growth and yield. This study evaluated the germination rate and growth response of Irvingia gabonensis to different Pretreatments and watering regimes. The experiment was laid in a 3×4 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated 15 and 7 times for germination and early growth studies, respectively. Three watering regimes; Watering once; W1=daily (control), W2=watering twice daily, and W3=watering once 2 days with four pre-treatments; P1=No treatment (control), P2= Soaking in water (23<sup>o</sup>C) for 24 hours, P3= Soaking in warm water (43 <sup>o</sup>C) for an hour, and P4= Scarification. Seedling height (cm), collar diameter (mm), and Number of leaves were assessed for 12 weeks. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test at α=0.05. The results showed that P2W2 had the best performance in germination with first emergence on the 13<sup>th</sup> day and 100% germination on the 28th day. A similar result was recorded for P2W2 in seedling height (24.39±2.068 and 26.82±1.705cm), collar diameter (4.712±0.995 and 4.313±0.922mm), and number of leaves with a mean value of 1.78±0.698. The study concluded that Irvingia gabonensis seeds germinate and seedlings thrive better when soaked in water (23<sup>o</sup>C) for 24 hours and watered twice daily, hence was recommended for mass seedling production.</em></p> <p> </p> Onyekachi Chukwu A. E. Ibe Emmanuel V. Nwadinobi Jacinta Ukamaka Ezenwenyi O. I. Ajao C. I. Ezeano G. A. Ukpeli L. C. Ozomma C. L. Umeh A. C. Onyili N.B. Ndulue M. A. Adeyemi C.C. Okonkwo C. K. Maduabuchukwu, N.J. Obiekwe M.U. Udeh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 146 149 Wildlife Conservation Awareness Level Among Secondary School Students in Imo State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1911 <p><em>Wildlife has suffered a lot of threats in the hands of some humans because of a lack of conservation awareness. An investigation about the level of this awareness was carried out among senior secondary school students in three different secondary schools located at Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. These schools were Ihiagwa secondary school (ISS), El-Betty Model secondary school (EMSS), and Nekede secondary school (NSS). Random sampling was used to select thirty (30) students from each school and a total of (90) questionnaires were administered. Data were collected on personal characteristics of respondents (age, sex, and class) and conservation awareness. Descriptive statistics was used for analyzing the data obtained. The results obtained indicated that the highest respondents (73.3%) fall within the age bracket 13-16 years old. (8.9%) falls within the age bracket 9-12 years old, while none of the respondents (0.0%) fall into the age bracket 6-8. (57.8%) were females while (42.2%) were males. (37.8%) were from senior secondary one (SSI) while (31.1%) were from both senior secondary two (SS2) and senior secondary three (SS3) students respectively. The result of conservation awareness showed that (&gt;70%) of the respondents were not aware of wildlife conservation (P&lt;0.05) while (&lt;30%) were aware (P&gt;0.05). The conclusion of this study shows that majority of secondary school students were not aware of biodiversity conservation. This study recommends that conservation awareness education; mostly practice should be incorporated into the secondary school curriculum, to start on time to teach young children their responsibilities regarding wildlife conservation. Also to create conservation awareness in all levels of education, through outreach, posters, news broadcast, interviews, and public lectures.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.N. Okeke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 150 155 Impact of Different Land Uses on Soil Erodibility Assessed using selected Indices in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1912 <p><em>Land use is considered to be one of the drivers of many processes of environmental change that includes erosion. The impact of land use on soil erodibility were evaluated at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Five land use types (forest land, rice farm, cassava farm, grassland and plantain farm) were used for this study. Soil samples were collected from each of the land use in five (5) replicates at 0-20 cm depth. Collected samples were subjected to laboratory analysis. Selected erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), clay dispersion index (CDI), clay flocculation index (CFI), clay ratio (CR) were used to assess land use impact on soil erodibility. Results obtained were subjected to data analysis using analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation analysis. Soils of the studied area were generally acidic and had a sandy loam texture. Bulk density and aggregate stability were higher under rice farm. Moisture holding capacity was higher under grassland and lower under plantain farm. Higher organic carbon, CEC and available phosphorus were obtained under grassland when compared to other land use types. The higher the dispersion ratio (DR) and clay dispersion index (CDI), the higher the ability of the soil to disperse while the higher the clay flocculation index (CFI), the better aggregated the soil becomes. Higher CFI was obtained under cassava farm while plantain farm had the highest CR value. This study encourages land use practices that improve the physical and chemical conditions of the soil so as to reduce susceptibility to erosion.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> T. V. Nwosu O. Orji E. C. Nnabuihe C. R. Igboka C. J. Nwaiwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 156 160 Correlating Forest Cover Loss with Land Surface Temperatures of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka using Remote Sensing Methods https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1913 <p><em>Human pressures, combined with changing hydrology and land resources, have a distinct effect on the carbon chain and ecosystem resilience. The increase in urban areas contributes significantly to the loss of vegetation cover (VC), which accelerates carbon emissions, increasing land surface temperature (LST) and global warming. This study used remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes by focusing on VC loss and its impact on LST and carbon emissions in Nnamdi Azikiwe University during 2001-2021. The study’s findings confirmed an reduction of VC of about -39% from 2001- 2011 with around 27.2% increase of vegetation cover loss, and corresponding LST rise from 22˚C to 35˚C. The trends were continuous, with a decrease in VC loss by -30% during 2011–2021, contributing 26˚C– 42˚C LST rise in the study area. Results indicate that the massive amount of carbon attracted the sun’s rays due to the VC loss and raising the surface temperature by 20˚C since 2001, which directly contributing to global warming. Thus, to mitigate climate hazards, efforts to slow urbanization to reduce pollution gateways and increase carbon sinks through afforestation will significantly contribute to protecting humanity from global warming.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. A. Ogbodo L. A. Chukwufulike C. L. Umeh P. O. Odey Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 161 164 Evaluation of Industrial and Thermal Properties of Mangrove Tree (Rhizophora racemosa) Tannin on Variegated Wood Waste https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1914 <p><em>Poor thermal capacity accompanied with deleterious fumes of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon oxides from sawmill wood wastes has led to its decreased utility as domestic energy alternative with consequent environmental implications during combustion at source. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of red mangrove tannin on the thermal capacity of wood waste as potential industrial material for other wood-based products. Tannin extracted from Rhizophora racemosa (red mangrove) bark with methanol (TBM) and water (TBW) as well as leaves with methanol-water (TLMW) were investigated for pH, specific gravity, viscosity, gelation time, total solid content, stain potential, flash point, cold and warm setting times. These were further employed to produce three (3) single-source tannin flaming balls – TBM, TBW and TLMW as well as composite-source types - TBM+TBW, TBM+TLMW and TBW+TLMW using wood-shavings and dust. Flaming balls were engaged to heat up distilled water for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 minutes while temperature attained were recorded respectively. Data collected were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant means separated with Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability. The results showed that TBM had highest specific gravity (1.80g/cm3), pH (7.60) and Viscosity (2.98poise) while the thermal capacity of the wood-waste was composite TBM+TLMW (100.5 ± 0.63<sup>o</sup>C) &gt;TBM+TBW&gt; TBW+TLMW compared to sole TBM (90.8<sup>o</sup>C) &gt; TBW &gt; TLMW &gt; CTR (48.1<sup>o</sup>C) flaming balls. Thus recommends the need of wood-wastes tannin flaming balls as improvement in the energy sector to combat global warming and mitigate climate change in low-income conurbations.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.E. Egwunatum N.B. Ndulue U. Onejeme C.M. Obasi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 165 170 Influence of Organic Fertilizers on the Growth Performance of Eucalyptus torilliana Seedlings in Nasarawa State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1917 <p><em>The study aimed to investigate the influence of organic fertilizers on the growth performance of Eucalyptus torilliana seedlings in Nasarawa, Nigeria. Seeds were sown in germination boxes filled with topsoil. At four weeks after germination, 240 seedlings were randomly selected and transplanted into polythene pots filled with 1000 g of top soil. After two weeks of acclimatization, 5 g and 10 g each of poultry manure and cattle dung and 0 g of control were applied as treatments. The experiment was laid out in a completely random design with four treatments. Each treatment consists of 60 experimental pots. Seedling variables such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, collar girth, leave length, and leave width were taken fortnightly. The collected data was subjected to an analysis of variance at p &lt;0.05. Results indicated that organic fertilizers significantly (p &lt;0.05) improved the growth of E. torilliana seedlings over the control. The highest mean plant height (9.24±2.29<sup>a</sup>) was recorded on seedlings treated with poultry manure + cattle dung. Seedlings treated with 10 g of poultry manure produced the greatest mean collar girth (2.05±0.35<sup>a</sup>). The best mean number of leaves (9.65±5.62<sup>a</sup>) was obtained in seedlings treated with poultry manure and cattle dung. There were significant differences (p&lt;0.0.5) in plant height) from week 3 (6.33±1.53<sup>f</sup>) to week 8 (10.10±1.83<sup>a</sup>). Poultry manure plus cattle dung performed better than cattle dung, while control performed the least. It is recommended that the application of poultry manure and cattle dung for proper growth of E. torilliana should be encouraged for plantation establishment.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E.D. Kuje S.I.N. Agera H.D. Japheth T.M. Soba H.I. Ndagi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 171 176 Characterization of Soils of Ifite Ogwari Campus of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1918 <p><em>This study assessed the properties of soils under arable (profile 1), pasture (profile 2) and forested (profile 3) lands at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Ifite Ogwari campus (latitude 06° 60' 13" N and longitude 6° 95' 63" E) to investigate the morphological, physical and chemical properties and determine relationships among them. A total of 12 samples were collected according to horizon differentiation. Soil samples were examined using standard laboratory procedures and data generated were analyzed using coefficient of variation and correlation to determine their relationships. Textural class of arable and pasture lands ranged from loam to sandy loam and forested land from loamy sand to sandy loam. Mottles colour were observed in pasture and forested lands. Variability in pH of arable, pasture and forested lands was 3.85 %, 3.64 % and 0.90 % respectively. The coefficient of variation of organic carbon content was 16.99 %, 39.59 % and 52.50 % in arable, pasture and forested lands respectively. The variability in base saturation was low in arable land (15.24 %) and pasture land (15.12 %) and moderate in forested land (26.88 %). The Organic carbon content correlated with Total nitrogen (TN) and Available phosphorus (AP) in arable and pasture lands and TN, AP and Na in forested land. The soils have low nutrient reserves and use of organic soil fertility management (dungs and composts) was recommended for farmers to increase yields in arable land, improve pasture land and conserve forested land.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. C. Nnabuihe M.U. Nwadibia T. V. Nwosu M. J. Okafor C.U. Ibeh M.N. Ibigweh C. J. Nwaiwu J. E. Nwankwo D. N. Osujieke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 177 182 Influence of the Levels of Soil Contamination on the Early Growth Performance of Adansonia digitata Linn. Seedlings https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1919 <p><em>The indiscriminate discharge of spent engine oil is a major source of soil pollution and the influence of the levels of soil contamination on the early growth and performance of Adansonia digitata was investigated at the forest nursery for the period of twelve weeks. Contaminated and top soil were collected from mechanic garage and Forest Nursery respectively. An headpan was used to measured the contaminated and top soil at gazetteed ratio such as: T1(1:0) Contaminated soil only, T2(1:1) Contaminated soil and top soil, T3 (1:2) Contaminated soil and top soil and T4 (0:1) top soil only. The experimental set up was laid in completely randomization design (CRD) with four treatments and five replicates. Morphological attributes such as shoot height, collar diameter and number of leaves were measured fortnightly for the period of twelve (12) weeks. Inferencial statistics such as Analysis of Variance was employed. The findings revealed that T2 (1:1) contaminated soil and top soil had the best growth vigour in terms of shoot height (4.36 cm) and stem diameter (1.34cm) and its leave mumber followed the best (94.6) and there is significant differences at (p&gt;0.05) level of significance. It can be inferred from the study that Adansonia digitata can be planted at mechanic garages and contaminated soil for cleaning the soil pollution and environment. Further research can be intensified for improvement of the species in terms of economics and ecological benefits it possess.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> K. J. Ilu K. D. Salami A. U. Jibo Y. K. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 183 187 Sensory Evaluation and Physicochemical Qualities of Maize-Based Flaked Snacks Complemented with Mucuna Pruriens Seed Flour https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1921 <p><em>The objective of this study was to produce Maize-Mucuna pruriens seed flaked snacks and evaluate their consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Maize was cleaned, tempered, decorticated, milled and sieved to obtain maize flour. Mucuna pruriens seed was soaked (twice for 6 h respectively with change of water), dehulled, boiled (1 h), dried (70ºC) and milled into flour. The five Maize-Mucuna seed flour ratios were formulated as follows: 95:5 (EFA), 90:10 (EMU), 85:15 (PRO), 80:20 (UZY) and 100:0 (ABC – control). The snacks proximate composition, functional and sensory qualities were evaluated. With the addition of Mucuna pruriens seed flour the moisture content of the samples had no significant difference (p &gt; 0.05) while significant increase (p &lt; 0.05) existed in the ash and protein contents. Sample with 90:10 Maize:Mucuna flour (EMU) had the lowest value of 7.20% while sample with 80:20 Maize:Mucuna seed flour (UZY) had the highest protein value of 11.59%. Swelling power increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) with inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed while water absorption capacity decreased significantly (p &lt; 0.05). Sample with 80:20 Maize:Mucuna flour (UZY) had the lowest water absorption capacity (183 g/ml). The control sample ABC (100:0 Maize:Mucuna) had the highest overall acceptability score (8.33) and significantly differed from the other samples. Inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed significantly reduced the overall acceptability of the snacks. This research showed that maize-based snacks could be complemented with up to 20% Mucuna pruriens seed flour which could help decrease protein-energy malnutrition.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C. C. Ezegbe P. U. Onyekwelu C. S. Mmuoh K. S. Okocha N. P. Igwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 189 195 Effects of Process Variables (Soaking Time and Drying Temperature) on Proximate Composition of Oven Dried Maize (Zea mays) Pap https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1922 <p><em>Effect of soaking time (30 - 70 h) and drying temperature (40-100°C) on proximate composition, of oven dried maize pap were studied. Powdered pap was produced from maize. Maize grain was cleaned and soaked in water at 60°C between 30 - 70 h and wet milled, sieved and oven dried between 40 - 100°C sieved to obtain pap powder which was subjected to proximate analysis. The moisture decreased with increase in soaking time. The protein content differed significantly (p &lt; 0.05), with values that ranged from 9.58-13.70 %. Ash content differed significantly (0.68 - 1.00 %), The fat content differed significantly (8.35 - 9.91 %) The crude fibre differed significantly (0.36 - 0.12 %,) carbohydrate was significantly different (65.42 - 72.4 %,) These findings suggested that varying the soaking time and oven-drying temperature significantly affected the proximate composition of the dried maize pap (Akamu) powder. The optimum conditions that would give the best product in terms of proximate composition were soaking time (34 h) and oven drying temperature (46 <sup>o</sup>C).</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J.O. Ifesi C. N. Ishiwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 196 201 Determination of Heavy Metals and Microbiological Contamination of Frozen Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) Sold in Eke-Awka Market, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1923 <p>The determination of heavy metals and microbiological contamination of frozen mackerel fish (Scomber scombrus) sold in Eke-Awka market were carried out on five (5) randomly obtained samples with the codes; FOV (Frozen mackerel from vendor 1), FVT (Frozen mackerel from vendor 2), FTV (Frozen mackerel from vendor 3), FVF (Frozen mackerel from vendor 4) and FFV (Frozen mackerel from vendor 5). For the heavy metals analyses, concentrations of lead in the samples ranged from 0.00 to 4.00 x 10-3 mg/g. Apart from sample FFV which gave 0.00, all other samples showed lead contamination higher than Codex maximum limit of 0.3 x 10<sup>-3</sup> mg/g. Mercury levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.40 x 10<sup>-3</sup> mg/g, which were below the permissible guideline level of 0.5 x 10<sup>-3</sup> mg/g as set by Codex for fish. This suggests that all the fish samples were well below permissible levels for mercury contamination. Chromium found in samples did not exceed the recommended daily intake. Arsenic and Cadmium were not detected in any of the samples. For microbiological analysis, the total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 1.0 x10<sup>2</sup> to 3.8 x 10<sup>2</sup> Cfu/g, total coliform count ranged from 1.4x102 to 2.5x 102 Cfu/g, total Salmonella count ranged from 1.0 x 10<sup>2</sup> to 1.2 x 10<sup>2</sup> Cfu/g, total Vibrio count ranged from 1.0 x 10<sup>2</sup> to 1.5 x 10<sup>2</sup> Cfu/g, and total fungal count ranged from 1.0 x 10<sup>2</sup> to 1.5x 10<sup>2</sup> Cfu/g. The study showed that the frozen mackerel fish samples were heavily contaminated with microorganisms, which may be attributed to their habitat, storage conditions and poor sanitary practices employed by the vendors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.S. Mmuoh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 202 206 Conformability of Five Brands of Vegetable Oil Sold in Roban Stores Awka, Nigeria to NAFDAC Set Standards https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1924 <p><em>The study investigated the conformability of five brands of vegetable oil sold in Roban stores Awka to NAFDAC set standards. The oil brands used were; Sunchi soya oil (CBI), Carlini pure canola oil (ABI), Lassa vegetable oil (NEI), Golden penny pure soya oil (NMN), and Activa pure vegetable oil (JGO). The result obtained for the physical properties of the oils differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) and ranged from 0.65-0.92, 1.33-1.54 and 50.55-80.44 mPa・s for specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity respectively and were below the standard set by NAFDAC for oils (0.91-0.92, 1.46-1.48) except for sample CBI with a specific gravity of 0.92 and refractive index of 1.46. However, all oil samples analyzed met the standard of ≥ 0.2 set by NAFDAC for viscosity. Furthermore, the values obtained for Saponification number, Iodine value, and Peroxide value differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) and ranged between 145-190 mg KOH/g, 0.90-8.86 mgI2/g and 1.70-7.48 meq/kg respectively. They complied with NAFDAC standards (190-209 mg KOH/g, 50-55 (Wijs) and ≤ 10 meq/kg). Other chemical properties analyzed were Free fatty acid, pH, Base value and impurity level. The standards of these parameters were not set by NAFDAC. Their values ranged from 3.40-6.31 mg/g KOH, 8.4-12, 8.4-12, and 0.13-0.60 respectively. The values of all parameters analyzed were within the NAFDAC recommended standard for edible oil. Thus, indicating that the oil samples studied were of good quality and suitable for consumption.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. B. Iwuchukwu H. O. Agu J. C. Mba N. P. Igwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 207 212 Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Breakfast Food from Blends of Ipomoea batatas and Sphenostylis stenocarpa Flours https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1926 <p><em>The research was carried out to produce flakes from blends of Orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) and African yam bean (AYB) and determine its proximate, functional, vitamin, anti-nutrient and sensory properties. The different flours were mixed at different ratios of 75:25, 50:50, 0:100, 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, 100:0, and 0:100, for OFSP and AYB respectively and used to produce flakes. Analysis was carried out using standard procedures. There was significant difference in the properties of all the eight blended samples of flour. The proximate composition (%) of flake showed that crude fibre content ranged from (1.64 - 2.31), moisture content (6.41- 7.18), ash content (2.16 - 3.41), protein content (9.69 - 21.23), carbohydrate content (64.73 - 78.71) and fat content (1.15 - 1.84). The functional properties bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and breaking strength of the flakes differed significantly (p&lt; 0.05) The vitamin A and hydrogen cyanide of the sample also differed significantly (p &lt; 0.05) The result showed that sample 6 (25 OFSP and 75 AYB), 3 (0 OFSP and100AYB) and 8 (0 OFSP and100 AYB) produced the most acceptable flake and could be recommended.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S. I. Ezeano C. Okolo C. N. Ishiwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 213 217 Performances of Riverine and Upland Accessions of Fluted Pumpkin in Awka Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1927 <p><em>An across geographical zone experiment was conducted to compare the performance of a riverine telferia accession with an upland land race in Awka. Both accessions seeds for planting were relatively of the same size and weight. At 21 days after planting, 77% of the riverine seeds emerged as against 72% of the local race. The Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) Experiment consisted of Upland and Riverine telferia accessions whole seeds as the treatments. They were each planted ten seeds on 4x1m beds (plots) and replicated five times. The riverine accession also produced more leaves, and longer vines at WAP1 and 2 before the two accessions leaf numbers and stem lengths became equal. The probable cause of its early start and better performance might be due to higher soil and environmental temperatures when compared with the relatively lower soil temperatures common in the riverine environment. The riverine accession also had the biggest vine girth and larger leaf area which accounted for its higher vine and leaf harvest at WAP 4 (213.70kg/ha) and WAP11 (4.00t/ha) as against upland accession WAP4 (77kg/kg) and WAP11 (2.68t/ha) harvests. Riverine accession started flowering early at 13 WAP (91 days), while upland accession started at 14 WAP (98days). Riverine accession also started fruiting at 16 WAP (112 days), while upland accession started fruiting at 23 WAP (161 days). Therefore, to achieve maximum production of telferia in Awka rainforest zone of Nigeria, riverine accession is recommended.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> H. Okolie E. A. Obdiebube C. Obasi B. Nwosu C. L. John C. Ikechukwu C. Onwuchekwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 218 222 Biochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Dairy-Tigernut Yoghurt using Ginger as Bio-Preservative https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1929 <p><em>Tiger-nut milk is a good substitute for cow milk in yoghurt production because of its health benefit, accessibility and availability especially for people living in low-income countries, people living with lactose intolerance and vegetarian. Ginger extract (4%) was added as a bio preservative to improve the keeping quality of products obtained. Effect of ginger extract was studied on both tiger-nut yoghurt, cowmilk yoghurt and the blends. Microorganisms were identified during storage, total sugar and titratable acidity were evaluated and organoleptic properties were assessed. Microbial count was lower in samples with ginger extract and pathogenic microorganisms were not detected during storage. Microorganisms isolated were Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, acidilactic, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aspergillus niger and Micrococcus roseus. Tiger-nut generally increased the total sugar and pH of the samples and reduced the titratable acidity. These findings suggested that addition of ginger can increase the keeping quality of dairy, tiger-nut yoghurt and their blends without altering the organoleptic properties thereby providing healthy diet and reducing nutritional related disease.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. A. Malomo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 223 229 Effect of Variety on Growth and Forage Yield of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) on Tropical Humid Soil: Implication for Animal and Human Nutrition https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1930 <p><em>The study was conducted to determine the effect of OFSP variety on growth and forage yield in humid soil: Implication for animal and human nutrition. The experiment was carried out in The Teaching and Research Farm, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku during the first farming season. The design adopted for the study was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two (2) treatments (solo gold and mother’s delight) each replicated three (3) times and lasted ninety (90) days. The length of planting materials was thirty centmetres (30cm), planted at a distance of 10m by 75 cm, weeding was done once and data were collected on the following sprouting, number of leaf and branches, vine length, fresh tuber yield and fresh forage yield. The data were summarized and subjected to mean, percentage and t-test .It was observed that the breeding lines had more 50% (solo gold, 56% and mother’s delight,60% sprouting from the first seven (7) days after planting (DAP) and continued to above 80% at 21DAP (solo gold, 84.67% and mother’s delight, 85.2%). The growth parameters mean number of leaves, number of branches and vine length showed numerical difference between varieties. The fresh tuber and forage yields were significantly different at 0.5 % probability. It was concluded OFSP varieties have unique characteristics the meet human nutrition demands. Solo gold (UMUSPO 4) had low fresh tuber yield but high forage yield and vegetative growth. Mother’s delight (UMUSPO 3) had high fresh tuber yield but low fresh forage. OFSP is recommended for farmers in Omoku depending on the products needed, solo gold breeding line should be cultivated for leafy vegetable and mother’s delight for tuber.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> G. U. Ukpong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 230 234 Proximate and Mineral Properties of Smoothie Fortified with African Bread Fruit and Cashew Nut https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1931 <p><em>This study assessed the proximate and mineral properties of different samples of smoothie processed with African bread fruit and cashew nut. The smoothie was produced from five different fruits, (Apple, Beetroot, Banana, Pineapple and Soursop) then fortified with African bread fruit and cashew nut. The fruits were sorted, washed, diced and blended together. The concentration of African bread fruits and cashew nut differs in each smoothie samples. The seven smoothie samples were examined for their proximate and mineral properties. The result for proximate analysis showed that ash content ranged from 1.80-2.90 %, moisture 35.00-50.00 %, fat 3.00-4.50%, fiber 0.75-1.35%, protein 23.10-33.75 % and carbohydrates 18.60-35.35 %. The mineral properties reveled that sodium content ranged from 108-120mg/100g, potassium 400.0-680.0mg/100g, zinc 1.60-3.00mg/100g, and calcium ranged from 12-27mg/100g respectively. The fortification of smoothie with African bread fruit and cashew nut increased the level of carbohydrates, protein, crude fibre and mineral.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. T. Victor-Aduloju P. C. Ikeokwu P. Chikeme P.P. Chibueze M. N. Ndukwe F. A. Nwanndi P. Ekube P. Chidera A. E. Okoye Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 235 239 Influence of Ohmic heating on the Proximate Composition and Consumer Acceptability Scores of African Breadfruit Seed Flour https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1932 <p><em>This work compared the effect of Ohmic heating (115V, 100°C) using aluminum electrodes and some sodium salts with conventional heating as a possible heat source for parboiling operation as it affects the nutritional quality of the dehulled African breadfruit seeds. The protein content ranged from 15.75-19.60%, fat content ranged from 5.97-7.54%, starch content ranged from 1.6-2.9 mg/ml while samples Ohmic heated with sodium chloride had the highest overall consumer acceptability score of 8.3 (on a 9-point hedonic scale), thus adjudged the best in this study.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> K. S. Okocha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 240 245 Socio-economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers in Flood Prone areas of Niger State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1933 <p><em>The study analyzed effects of flooding on the socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers’ in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. A sample size of 234 registered rice farmers obtained was used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. From the results showed that average age of the respondents is 38years, male dominated in rice farming in the area. Majority (89.7%) of the farmers were married, average household size was nine (9) persons, 59% of rice farmers had formal education at various levels while 41% were illiterate. Further, majority (72.2%) of the farmers were peasant farmers. While1.3% practiced commercial farming in the area. Majority (79.9%) of the farmers had experienced flooding in their rice farm while 20.1% had not experienced flood in their rice farm and average annual income of the farmers was N509, 296.58. The study concluded that flood may have adversely affected farmers’ social status in the study area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Apuyor U. S. Mohammad A. O. Ojo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 246 249 Determinants of Environmental Responsible Behaviour among Undergraduate Students of College of Humanities and Culture, Osun State University, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1934 <p><em>The environment plays a vital and important role in the life of human and their endeavors. There is scarcity of information factors that determine the behaviour of students. The research assessed the determinants of environmental responsible behavior among undergraduate students of College of Humanities and Culture, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria. This research study adopted a descriptive research design, using a case study approach. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used. The sample size of 121 was obtained out of 1262 of the total numbers of students in the four randomly selected Departments. Chi-square was employed to test the significant relationship between student socio-economic characteristics and their environmental awareness and attitudes. Spearman rank correlation was also employed to test the significant correlation between environmental awareness and attitude of students. The result of the research showed that there was no significant relationship between students’ socio-economic characteristics and their environmental awareness and attitudes at p&gt;0.05. However, the study showed that there is significant correlation between environmental awareness and attitudes of students at p&lt;0.05. The study concluded that environmental awareness has a powerful impact on environmental attitude and behaviour of the students, hence, recommends that environmental studies, degradation and conservation should be incorporated into student’s curriculum to improve their positive attitudes towards the environment.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. M. Ogundare Onyekachi Chukwu O. I. Ajao A. E. Silas C.O. Alokwu M. O. Shola Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 251 255 Potentiality Assessment of Acidovorax sp. and Aeromonas sp. for Degradation of Glyphosate and Paraquat Herbicides https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1935 <p><em>In agriculture, weed control through chemical herbicides, creates spray drift hazards and adversely affects the environment. The search for an alternate method for the degradations of herbicides through the use of bacteria which is eco-friendly for the bioremediations of herbicides contaminated soil. This study aimed at assessing the biodegradation of glyphosate and paraquat herbicides by bacteria isolated from soil. Soil samples were collected from Research Farm of National Root Crops Research Institute, Ginger Station, Kajuru, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on colonial and biochemical characteristics. The assessment for the potential of the bacterial isolates to degrade glyphosate and paraquat herbicides was carried out using microcosms study. The bacterial isolates were phenotypically identified as Proteus sp., Acidovorax sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sp. Among the isolates, Acidovorax sp. and Aeromonas sp. had the highest potential to utilize glyphosate and paraquat as sole source of carbon. In the presence of glyphosate Acidovorax sp. and Aeromonas sp. had cells count of 1.30×108cfu/g and 1.90×108cfu/g respectively. However, in the presents of paraquat as a source of carbon Acidovorax sp. and Aeromonas sp. had the counts of 1.90×107cfu/g and 2.60×106cfu/g respectively. The quantifications of glyphosate and paraquat herbicides residues in amended soil using GC/MS shows that Acidovorax sp. have degraded 77.1% while Aeromonas sp. 88.1% of glyphosate. However, Acidovorax sp. degraded 51.5% while Aeromonas sp. 59.8% of paraquat. This study showed that Acidovorax sp. and Aeromonas sp. had the potential to degrade glyphosate and paraquat herbicides.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 256 260 Potentials of Urban Trees and their Roles in Carbon Sequestration https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1936 <p>Trees in the urban environments play an essential public health role because of their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon di oxide (CO2) through photosynthesis and thus, stored CO2 as tree biomass. Increase in population growth, industries, automobile uses, urbanization, cooking as well as concrete landscape have continued to degrade the natural environment, increasing heat and increasing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2 in the Urban environment. Hence, there is a need to improve urban green efforts. This work reviewed the potentials of urban trees and their role in carbon sequestration. Several approaches have been used to investigate the ability of urban trees to sequester carbon. Their ability to increase carbon sequestration and storage for climate change mitigation actions cannot be overemphasized. Studies have revealed that apart from the direct storing of carbon by urban trees, they as well reduce CO2 emissions by cooling ambient air and allowing residents to minimize annual heating and cooling. Carbon dioxide concentration due to vehicular emission can also be minimized with roadsides trees. Studies have also exposed that when trees are planted near buildings, they can indirectly reduce carbon emissions by moderating the amount of energy that is required for space cooling. This work concluded that urban dwellers need to recognize and articulate the prominence of trees as a vital component of the urban setting. The selection of different tree species with high biomass and efficiency of trapping and fixing carbon is therefore recommended in plantation programme in urban areas.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. C. Onyili Jacinta Ukamaka Ezenwenyi C.J. Nzekwe S.O. Ezenwankwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 261 264 Response of Turkey Growers Fed Fermented Shea Butter Cake Based Diets with Fullzyme® Supplementation https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1937 <p><em>A 6-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and economic analysis of broad breasted bronze turkey growers fed diets containing fermented shea butter cake meal (FSBCM) as replacement for maize with Fullzyme® supplementation. Three treatment diets were formulated, where T1 contained maize-soybean based control diet, T2 had 25% FSBCM replacing maize in T1 diet and T3 contained 0.5% Fullzyme supplementation to T2 diet. A total of 72, six-week old unsexed broad breasted bronze turkey growers were weighed and allocated to three dietary treatments with four replications of six birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain as well as cost indices were subjected to analysis of variance with the aid of SAS software package. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Results showed that significant (P&lt;0.05) higher weight gain and lower feed intake were recorded in turkeys fed control and T3 diets compared to those offered T2 diet. Feed:gain deceased (P&lt;0.05) in turkeys fed control and T3 diets than those fed T2 diet. Cost analysis revealed that cost/kg gain was significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower in turkeys fed T3 diet compared to those on control and T2 diets. Cost of feed consumed, cost of production and % feed cost were higher (P&lt;0.05) in control group than T2 and T3 groups. In conclusion, FSBCM can replace maize in turkey growers diet up to 25% level with mixture of enzymes cocktail and probiotics (Fullzyme) supplementation without compromising growth performance at a lower feed cost/kg weight gain.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P.C. Aguihe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 265 269 Soil Chemical Properties Response to Regular Application of Agrochemicals in Ifite-Ogwari, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1938 <p><em>The study on the soil chemical properties response to regular application of agrochemicals was carried out in rice farms at Ifite-Ogwari. Soil samples were taken from rice field that receives various forms of agrochemical and that of adjacent field as control using random sampling techniques at depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in three replicates. Sampled soils were air dried, sieved and analyzed in the laboratory using standard routine procedures. Heavy metals As and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory using double acid method. The rest showed that pH was strongly acidic both at soils with applied agrochemicals (rice field) and control, 5.41 and 5.12 respectively. The control also recorded high organic carbon (1.90%), while soil with applied agrochemicals (rice field) had the lowest organic carbon (1.01%); so also, was total nitrogen. Calcium content was low ranging from 2.27 to 4.80Cmolkg-1; magnesium content was moderate ranging from 1.20 to 2.27Cmolkg-1; potassium was very low ranging from 0.14 to 0.19Cmolkg-1; sodium was also very low ranging 0.09 to 0.15Cmolkg-1. Available phosphorus showed low to medium, 3.63mg/kg and 10.4mg/kg respectively. Heavy metals studied also showed that arsenic (As) content which was between 0.01 to 0.16mgkg-1 and lead (Pb) 0.13 to 0.22mgkg-1 didn’t reach the permissible limit given by FAO. The study showed that calcium, available phosphorus, soil pH and arsenic concentration responded significantly to the regular use of agrochemicals in the rice farm.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. J. Okafor Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 270 273 Determinants of Factors Influencing the level of Mitigation of Heat Stress on Broiler in Oyo State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1939 <p>Compared to developed nations, Nigeria has a gap in its protein consumption. Poultry production being seen as a way out of this problem is faced with climate change challenges. Smallholder broiler farmers were the most vulnerable due to low copping infrastructural capacity. This study, therefore, investigated the determinants of factors influencing the level of mitigation of heat stress (HS) on broiler by farmers in Oyo state. The study employed a systematic sampling technique using registered members of the Poultry Association of Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data: demographic, socioeconomic profile, institutional factors, perceived heat stress and coping methods. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit regression α=0.05. The study revealed that majority (76.7%) were male, mean age=48years. The average years of education and rearing experience were 12 and 6 years respectively. Majority (71.67%) accessed extension/vet doctor services, while only (23.3%) accessed credit. Temperature was perceived to be highest in January-March, while extremely cold weather was perceived in August. The symptoms of HS identified were gasping, wing raising, docility, reduction in feed, increased water intake, panting, weight loss, slow growth rate, pest and disease infestation, vaccine failure and increase mortality. Multinomial logit result showed all the independent variables to positively influence the level of farmers’ mitigation except sex and household size. Age, sex, access to credit and farmers’ income, household size, education, rearing experience, labour used and stock size were significant at 1% and 5%. Access to credit and training were recommended.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. J. Komolafe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 275 280 Perceived Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Rural Farming Households in Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1940 <p><em>The COVID-19 breakout in the world prompted the Nigeria government to enforce a lockdown measure at the end of March which came as a shock to small-scale farmers as movement restrictions were implemented by security operatives across the country which prevented many farmers to gain access to their fields. Some experts opined that the lockdown situation culminated in low food production, enmeshed within other COVID-19 crises like loss of livelihoods, high food prices among other issues.</em><br><em>The study employed descriptive statistics and the result showed that the farmers were aware of the COVID-19 pandemic. This restriction on movement of human and goods resulted to farmers loss of their means of livelihood and also reduced their purchasing power (money) thereby making them more vulnerable to food insecurity. As showed in the result, the monthly farm income, farm produce sold decreased during the pandemic while the cost of farm inputs (labor, fertilizer, herbicide and transportation) increased during the pandemic. From the result above, the COVID-19 pandemic drastically reduced the purchasing power of the farming households and access to nutritious food became difficult.The study therefore recommend that government and relevant organizations should support rural farmers to build their disaster resilient against future disaster. And also, to provide support or grants to rural farmers as to minimize the shock as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and also to cushion the effect of the virus outbreak on rural farming households.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. P Obot Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 281 287 Analysis of Value Addition of Cassava Products in Nasarawa State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1941 <p><em>The study examined cassava products value addition in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 1,360 respondents and analysed using general linear model statistics. The result showed that boiled cassava root, cassava bread, cassava chips, cassava flakes, garri, High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) and meat pie had mean incomes of N555.00, N3,429.17, N225.00, 642.86, N3,642.86, N119.00, 127.66, N121, 288.37 and N1,490.00, respectively. The mean incomes from cassava chips, HQCF, and garri were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than mean incomes of the backed Cassava products (Cassava flakes, meat pie, Cassava bread and boiled Cassava roots). Also, the mean income differential of cassava flakes, garri, HQCF and meat pie were significant at P&lt;0.05. Processors that produce only boiled cassava roots, cassava bread, chips, flakes, garri, HQCF and meat pie (level 1) had mean incomes of N555, N3, 429.17 N 196,666.67, N3, 642. 86. N 172,319.15 N 108, 683.72 and N 1, 490, respectively. Those of them that processed cassava roots into cassava chips and HQCF or garri (level 2) recorded mean income of N 147,102.33 and those that processed cassava roots into cassava chips, garri and HQCF (level 3) settled with mean income of N 222,441.86. Comparatively, mean income of level 1 is significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower than the mean incomes of levels 2 and 3 (with differences of N 58018.89 and N 98,955.89). However, the mean income differential between levels 2 and 3 is not significantly different. Processors should concentrate on processing chips, garri and or HQCF for better economic gain.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 288 292 Land Use Conflict Between Farmers and Herders in Anambra State with Implications for Food Security https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1942 <p><em>Herder-farmer conflicts threaten the livelihood resources of people particularly farming communities due to high dependence on natural resources for survival. The study described the personal characteristics of the respondents; identified the causes of the conflict between the farmers and the nomads; described the perceived socio-economic effects of conflicts and identified the coping strategies adopted by the farmers. Frustration-aggression and conflict theories guided the study. The primary data collected from 120 respondents using well-structured questionnaire were analysed with mean and multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that women dominated crop farming by 61.67%, mean age was 42.83 with a household size average of 6 persons and mean size farm land of 2.45 hectares. The perceived causes of the conflict were land encroachment, crop damage by cattle, killing of stray cattle, inadequate grazing reserves for the nomads, indiscriminate bush burning and hatred for one another. The perceived socio-economic effects of the conflicts were reduction in cultivable farmlands, little or no seed/cutting for the next planting season, disruption in the transportation of farm produce and destruction of human lives and property. This study also showed that the coping strategies adopted by the farmers were formation of vigilant groups (86.67%), income diversification (85%) and combination of arable farming with other cash crops (71.67) amongst others. The study therefore recommends that the government should address issue of climate change, establish ranches, implement the open grazing ban and provide coping loan for farmers affected by the conflict.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> T. N. Nwankwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 293 298 Analysis of Climate Change Perception by Farming Households in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1943 <p><em>This study analyzed climate change adaptation perception by farming households in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study ascertained the perception of the farming household on the effects of climate variability and identified constraints to climate change adaptation measures. Multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques were used for the selection of 100 respondents. Results shows that loss of crops ( ̅=2.98), increase in frequency of drought ( ̅=2.95), decrease in agricultural yield ( ̅=2.94), high cost of food ( ̅=2.92), erosion ( ̅=2.89), loss of income ( ̅=2.87), poor supply in the market ( ̅=2.84) were perceived effects of climate change. Further analysis identified individual/financial, natural, social/institutional and environmental constraints as constraints to farmers’ adaptation strategies. Thus, there is high level of awareness and perception of climate change effects in the area. The study recommended that policy makers and extension services should enlighten farmers more about climate change and adaptation strategies, identified constraints should be addressed by both private and government sectors. Development agenda should incorporate climate change adaptation policies.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. O. Enyigwe Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 299 303 Socioeconomic Determinants of Crop Production Strategies Adopted by Organic Farmers in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1944 <p><em>This paper assessed socioeconomic determinants of crop production strategies adopted by organic farmers in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic characteristics of the organic farmers on the type of crop production strategies adopted and determined constraints to organic farming in the study area. Multi-stage random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. Primary data collected were analyzed using ordinary least square multiple regression and factor analysis. The null hypothesis was tested at 5% level of significance. Result showed a high value of R2 (87%) which signifies that the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents had significant effects on the type of crop production strategies they adopted. The independent variables were positively signed and statistically significant at various levels; indicating positive relationship with the dependent variable. Four major constraints identified were: economic/institutional, social, financial and technological constraints. The study recommended that the respondents should be well trained in organic farming and its applications in order to ensure sustainable production of crops in the area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.P. Chinenye Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 304 309 Various Egusi Melon Seeds existing in Southwestern Nigerian Markets https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1945 <p><em>Egusi is a common name for oil rich seeds of Egusi melon used mainly as soup condiment. The medium sized usually comes to mind anytime the name egusi is mentioned. But there exists a variety of crops in family Cucurbitaceae used for same purpose which is not commonly known even among the elites in Crop Science in Nigeria and beyond. In the course of a research on egusi, different types of seed forms were identified. There were six different types of egusi kernels (bojuri, itoo, serewe, igbaa, bara and wewe) based on size, colour and type sold in Nigerian markets; however, bara and serewe were the most common types of egusi found in Nigeria.</em></p> F. T. Obani B. Ikotun Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 310 312 Profitaility and Factors affecting the Performance of Oil Palm Processors in South West, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1946 <p><em>This study evaluated the profitability and determined factors affecting the performance of oil palm processor in South West, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from two hundred and seventy-five (275) oil palm processors with the aid of structured validated questionnaire through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The data collected were analyzed using Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equation (SURE) and Budgetary Technique. The result revealed that the gross margin and profit of ₦498,534.6 and ₦357,367.9 respectively indicated that oil palm processing business was profitable. The Return on Investment (ROI) value of 1.63 showed that the processors had better performance. SURE, analysis showed experience and household size to be positively and significantly associated with profit while age, depreciation cost, labour cost and transportation cost showed inverse relationship with profit. On the other hand, education and experience showed positive and significant association with return on investment (ROI) while age, household size, depreciation, labour cost and transportation cost had a negative relationship with ROI. It is therefore, recommended that there should be policies which focus on education of processors that will promote performance in the oil palm processing business and extension training services that will enhance the processors experience in order to have a better performance.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. S. Bankole Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 313 317 Application of Agricultural Extension Principles to Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Communities of Enugu State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1947 <p><em>This paper explored agricultural extension principles that can be applied to sustainable agricultural practices in rural communities of Enugu State, Nigeria. The paper was based on a desk review of available relevant literature. Information was accessed through a web search, Google scholar, open-accessed journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, books, and reports. The paper identified sustainable agricultural practices such as ridging/mound making, planting of trees/grasses, terracing, and local water harvesting and examined agricultural extension principles that can be applied to them namely: the principle of starting at the level of farmers, the principle of education of farmers, the principle of cooperative work and principle of constant evaluation. Also, the following challenges were described: inadequate number of extension personnel, poor farmer-extension-research interaction, and low level of education between extension agents and farmers. The paper concluded that agricultural extension principles can be applied to sustainable agricultural practices and recommended recruitment of more educated extension personnel to close the huge gap between extension farmer ratio in the state and constant training of extension workers.</em></p> I. A. Enwelu C.J. Iyere-Freedom Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 318 322 Perceived Attitude of Farmers towards the use of ICT Tools among small holder rice farmers in Southeast, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1948 <p><em>The study examined Perceived Attitude of Farmers towards the use of ICT Tools among small holder rice farmers in Southeast, Nigeria. Specifically, it described socioeconomic characteristics of smallholder rice farmers, ascertained the perceived attitude of farmers towards the use of ICT tools, analyzed the extent of use ICT tools and determined the significant relationship between smallholder rice farmers and their level of use of ICT. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire from 476 randomly selected smallholder rice farmers. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean threshold and Spearman Bivariate correlation. The result showed that smallholder rice farmers were relatively young because rice farming is physically demanding and old age can pose a problem to the cultural operations. It was discovered that the use of ICT tools is a source of motivation to both the extension agents and farmers’ thereby promoting learning, and ICT can be said to propel knowledge. The result on relationship between farmers and their level of use of ICT shows that a unit increase in farmer’s attitude will increase the level of use of ICT tools/format by 0.237 unit. It was recommended that government and other relevant bodies should ensure that ICT facilities are installed in rural communities, necessary trainings should be slated for smallholder rice farmers on the use of ICT tools/format by appropriate authorities to boost their confidence and reliance on ICT.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B.O. Gbughemobi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 323 328 Factors Affecting Shea Nut Collectors’ and Shea Butter Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Improved Shea Seedling in North-Central Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1949 <p><em>Shea tree is highly valued because of its fat containing fruits. Traditionally North-central rural people are involved in shea nut collection and shea butter production. It is an economic venture for rural households. It present sound investment options for eradicating poverty. Despite the economic value of shea tree, is still growing in the wild and the improved shea seedling is yet to be adopted by farmers. Willingness is a major stage in adoption, and the adoption of improved technologies is one of the greatest challenges facing farmers. This study therefore examined, the factors affecting willingness of the shea nut collectors and shea butter producers to adopt improved shea seedlings. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents drawn from 5 Local Government Areas across two states of Kwara and Niger. And the total of 150 respondents was used for the study; consisting 78 shea nut collectors and 72 shea butter producers. Descriptive statistics and logit regression were used for data analysis. Majority (70%) were not aware of improved shea seedling while (72.67%) were willing to adopt the improved shea seedlings. Household size, gender, educational level, marital status, land ownership, membership of association, annual income, input cost, occupation, experience and extension contacts were the significant factors affecting the shea nut collectors and shea butter producers willingness to adopt improved seedlings (p&lt;0.05). Government and all stakeholders need to collaborate with NIFOR in the area of mass production of improve shea seedlings to curtail the reliance on the natural regeneration of shea.</em></p> I.D. Garba Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 329 335 Profitability of Fish Farming in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1950 <p><em>The study examined the profitability of fish farming in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select six Fish farms namely Housetully fish farm, Ujundu fish farm, Ausco fish farm, Chizzy fish farm, and Chuksagro farm in the Awka metropolis. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics and net farm income analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. The result of the socio-economic analysis showed that all the respondents (100%) were males and all had formal tertiary education. Also, 50% of the respondents were mostly between the ages of 31- 40 years and had an average of 7 years of experience in the fish farming business. The majority of the respondents derived their capital largely from personal savings and spent an average total expenditure of N610,242.2 and earned an average gross income of N1,100,000. Gross margin analysis revealed a gross margin of N579,096 with a net farm income of N599,758 implying that for every 1N invested in the fish farm business, there was a return of N1.11. This study concluded that fish production in the study area is highly profitable. The study also revealed that despite the high profitability of the fish farm business in Awka, the fish farmers still face some serious problems such as high feed costs, fish diseases, high cost of fish seeds, high labor costs, and inadequate power supply. It is suggested that government involvement in fish farming will support these practicing fish farmers and also encourage unemployed youths to engage in fish farming.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.C. Ikechukwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 336 341 Determinants of Agricultural Export and Trade Liberalization in Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1951 <p><em>The study estimated short and long run relationships between trade liberalization and agricultural export performance in Nigeria from 1999-2020. Time series analytical were used. Result revealed that, two variables; agricultural import (AIMP) and agricultural degree of openness (ADO) were stationary at levels while others; (ACF, AEXP, EXR and NAP) became stationary at first difference. The short-run and long-run agricultural GDP performance with respect to the macro-economic variables were analysed using the techniques of co-integration and error correction models. Result revealed that,at the long run, coefficients of agricultural export (AEX), agricultural degree of openness (ADO), national agricultural productivity (NAP) and agricultural capital formation (ACF) were positively significant at 1 and 10 percent levels respectively. Agricultural import (AIMP) and exchange rate (EXR) were negative but significant at 1 and 5% respectively. At the short-run, result shows a negative but significant relationship with respect to agricultural capital formation (ACF), agricultural export (AEXP) and exchange rate (EXR. Result revealed negative relationship between national agricultural productivity (NAP), exchange rate (EXR), agricultural import (AIMP), agricultural export (AEXP) and agricultural capital formation (ACF) at one year lagged. With R2-adjusted of 0.9273 and ECM of -0.6372 implies that, 92.73% variations in Agricultural GDP performance was affected by the independent variables and 63.72 of disequilibrium in the current period may be corrected for in the long-run. The study recommended that, appropriate short- and long-term economic policy instruments should be enforced to stimulate investment and production opportunities in the agricultural sector so as to increase agricultural GDP performance.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. D. Akpan E. Anwana S.M. Etim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 342 348 Partial Budget Analysis of a Diversified Small Scale Oil Palm Farms in a Changing Climate in Imo and Delta State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1952 <p><em>Small scale oil palm farmers and /or households, business owners must often make decisions about changes they are either contemplating making or that have to be made. The partial budget is a useful tool for farm managers when these situations arise. There is dearth of information on whether the small change farmers make will decrease, increase or not change net income. A partial budget helps farm owners/managers evaluate the financial effect of incremental changes. Data were analyzed using Partial budget Analysis. Results showed that Net benefit from diversification (N268, 800) is higher than that from oil palm farmers who adopted monoculture technology (N128, 100). Results show that the Rate of return of switching and/or changing from monoculture to diversification is 1.26. Since the alternative change is more economical and greater than one (1), it was recommended that the change to diversification which can reduce financial risk associated with climate change should be accepted and put into practice by farmers in the study area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.A. Ojemade E. Unuabonah A. Oloyede Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 349 353 Climate Change Adaptation Practices of Rural Farmers in Benue and Kano States of Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1953 <p><em>Global climate change impacts have recently become the most devastating human problem become climate change causes remain substantially unabated. Rural farming communities in Nigeria have suffered varying degrees of climate vulnerabilities resulting in wanton destruction of live and property. To offset ravaging impacts of climate change, rural communities in Benue and Kano State developed coping strategies in the form of deforestation for arable agriculture, firewood marking, logging, charcoal production, furniture/wood working and wanton exploitation of non- forest resources. These coping strategies rather destroyed the landscapes and increased vulnerabilities in the communities. Climate change adaptation pilot project component of the “Building Nigeria’s Response to climate change” (BNRCC) Project was experiment in Daudu and Falgore communities of Benue and Kano State respectively to alleviate the increasing vulnerabilities of the rural communities. The locals adopted various sustainable climate change adaptation initiatives to build resilience. Reduce poverty and improve living conditions of the vulnerable population especially women, youths and children. The success of these adaptation activities has generated wide scale replication among several farming communities around primary beneficiary sites in Benue and Kano States of Nigeria. This paper examined the successful climate change adaptation initiatives of the BNRCC pilot project being replicated in other farming communities in Benue and Kano States and the challenges faced by the farmers in implementing those adaptation initiatives.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. I. Amonum Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 354 357 Ethnobotany and Chemistry of Selected Plants in the Rutaceae Family https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1954 <p><em>Plants in the Rutaceae family are widely distributed across the globe. They are important sources of ethnomedicinal materials and also rich in phytochemicals. This work focuses on some of the ethnobotanical uses and phytochemical composition of four (4) plant species belonging to the Rutaceae family, viz: Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Persian Lime (Citrus latifolia Yu. Tanaka), Tangerine (Citrus tangerina Tanaka) and Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck). It was revealed that different parts of the plants have been found useful in curing and managing ailments such as infertility, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and cholera among others. Important chemicals including but not limited to alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and terpenoids have also been identified in the plants. Similar review should be carried out on other taxonomic families so that there would be comprehensive documentation of the ethnobotanical relevance and phytochemical constituents of many plant families.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> F.J. Moshood Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 359 366 Effects of Herbicide Application on Soil Bacterial Load under Ginger Production in Kaduna, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1955 <p><em>Herbicides are commonly used to control weeds in crop productions, in addition to their impact on weeds, these herbicides are also affecting soil microorganisms which are responsible for numerous biological processes essential for crop production. This study was undertaken to determine the some selected physicochemical property of the soil, assess the effects of herbicide application on bacterial load and to identify the bacteria that are presents in the soil samples for the sampling sites. A soil sample that had history of herbicides application was collected from National Root Crops Research Institute Ginger Station, Kajuru, Kaduna State. The physicochemical analysis of the soil property was carried out based on the standard procedures and the colony counts were obtained using serial dilution technique. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on colonial and biochemical characteristics. Results obtained showed that each sampling point had an average bacterial counts of; Point A (1.4×106 cfu/g), Point B (1.5×106 cfu/g), Point C (1.4×106 cfu/g) and Point D which is the control (2.7×106 cfu/g). The bacterial isolates obtained in the study included Proteus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Conclusively, this study shows that use of herbicides applications at field recommended rate may not have an adverse effects on the bacterial load.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Saleh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 367 371 Comparative Therapeutic Phytoconstituents of Senecio biafrea (Oliv. and Hiern) J. Moore and Vernonia amygdalina Del. https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1956 <p><em>The therapeutic chemical constituents’ investigation of Senecio biafrae shoot and Vernonia amygdalina leaf, which are commonly used in the Nigerian ethnomedicine, were studied. Phytochemicals viz: cardiac glycosides, tannin, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid, alkaloid and saponin in the dried powdered plants samples were analysed quantitatively by spectrophotometric and titrimetic methods. In the results, cardiac glycoside was the most abundant in V. amygdalina (8.79 ± 0.02 mg/g [or 57.1 %]) and S. biafrae (6.07 ± 0.07 mg/g [or 42.24 %]), with the former significantly (P&lt;0.01) higher. Flavonoid (5.79 ± 0.08 mg/g [or 28.3 %]) and tannin (0.47 ± 0.02 mg/g [or 3.1 %]) contents in V. amygdalina were higher in comparison with the flavonoid (3.55 ± 0.01 mg/g [or 24.70 %]) and tannin (0.28 ± 0.01 mg/g [or 1.95 %]) in S. biafrae. The alkaloid in S. biafrae (4.1 ± 0.04 mg/g [or 28.53 %]) was higher in comparison with that of V. amygdalina (0.1± 0.01 mg/g [or 0.6 %]). The cyanogenic glycosides (0.26 ± 0.006 mg/g [or 1.81 %]) in S. biafrae was more in comparison with that of V. amygdalina (0.12 ± 0.02 mg/g [or 0.3 %]). The saponin content of V. amygdalina (0.13 ± 0.04 mg/g [or 0.6 %]) and S. biafrae (0.11 ± 0.03 mg/g [or 0.77 %]) were relatively low with no significant difference. However, the presence of these therapeutic secondary metabolites in S. biafrae and V. amygdalina supports their uses in the herbal preparations for the treatment of some diseases like malaria, diabetes and infertility in Nigeria.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. A. Osiyemi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 372 377 Effects Of Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) Leaf Meals on Haematological and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1957 <p><em>This study was designed to investigate the effect of varying levels of pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) on haematological and carcass characteristics of broiler birds. Sixty broilers of five weeks old were used for study which lasted for five weeks. The birds were assigned to four treatment diets with three replicates. The finisher rations were formulated in which PLM was incorporated at 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.0% in T2, T3 and T4 respectively. T1 had no PLM and served as the control diet. The diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous containing 2,850kcal ME/kg and 20% crude protein. At the end of the experiment, data collected on haematological and carcass characteristics were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) a completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results showed that there were significant (p &lt;0.05) improvements on the haematological and carcass characteristics of birds fed the treatment diets. Birds on T4 diets had (p &lt;0.05) better haematological profiles Hb (10.17%) and PCV (31%) as against the control diet of Hb (8.09%) and PCV (25.97%). The carcass characteristics of the birds followed similar trend in which T4 had significant higher values of 2,168g and 73.90% for dressed weight and dressed % respectively. While T1 (control) had the lowest values of 1,786g and 68.96% for dressed weight and dressed% respectively. It is concluded that incorporating 2.0% PLM (T4) into the diets of broilers helped to improve the haematological responses.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> E. O. Onu, Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 378 382 Assessment of Open Grown Tree Species Diversity in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1958 <p><em>Trees, which are important for the sustenance of life and the health of our planet, are disappearing at an alarming rate. In Nigeria, the impacts of climate change will further aggravate the plights of many indigenous and exotic tree species as climatic variability may limit the ability of forest trees to quickly adapt to the changing climate. This study focused on the assessment of open grown tree species diversity in the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria which is considered as a crucial task to design strong conservation action strategies. Open grown tree species with diameter at breast height (Dbh) ≥10 cm in the study area were identified and recorded. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and alpha diversity analysis. A total number of 479 trees distributed among 25 tree species and 17 families were identified, with high Shannon-Weiner diversity index (2.50) and Simpson dominance index (0.88). The study indicated high species variability within the study area with Fabaceae family having the highest diversity of 4 species. Other important families dominating the study area include Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Moraceae and Myrtaceae with same number (2) of species. The study concluded that there is a huge presence of indigenous and exotic tree species in the study area and some are no longer found in most natural forests underscores the potentials of the campus as an important live gene bank. The study therefore recommends the need for policy intervention to aid the identification, documentation and conservation of forest tree resources in the University.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. U. Ezenwenyi Onyekachi Chukwu N.N. Adum C. I. Ezeano J.J. Eze Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 383 388 Evaluation of Flora Composition and Utilization in Ikwe Game Reserve, Igbor, Gwer L.G.A., Benue State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1959 <p><em>There are different types of protected areas, and the purpose for their establishment is very broad. Persistent ecosystem monitoring is crucial to the fulfillments of every conservation objectives; however, at present no comprehensive record of flora composition at the study area. This study was carried out to determine the species composition, percentage distribution, and structure and utilization level at the study area. The point centered quarter (PCQ) method and the step point line technique (SPLT) were used as sampling points. All encountered trees species within the PCQ were identified and recorded. The result revealed that there are 32 woody plant species from 20 families. The dominant family was Caesalpinodae. In woodland the common species was Prosopix africana (12.14 %) while in the riparian vegetation Syzygium guineense (24.12 %) was the dominant woody plant species. The hilly vegetation recorded Berlinia auriculata (45 31 %) as the dominant species. The riparian vegetation had the highest density per hectare (617 trees/ha) followed by the hilly vegetation (13 trees/ha) and the woodland (2 trees/ha). The species diversity index showed that the woodland is slightly above the riparian by 0.2, while the hilly has the lowest diversity index (0.3). Only two plants were utilized by animals; Oryza sativa and Manihot esculenta. The difference in species composition is attributed to human activities. It is therefore strongly recommended that Silvicultural management practices should be intensified at the study area.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> L. A. Mathew Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 389 394 Response of Storage Fungi of Onion (Allium cepa) to selected Botanicals https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1960 <p><em>Onion (Allium cepa) produced bulbs are mostly lost after harvesting due to rots caused by fungi. Extracts of many plants are effective for control of fungal pathogens. So far, little information is available on the use of several plant extracts in controlling rot of onion bulbs caused by plant pathogens during storage. Therefore, this study aimed to isolate and identify rot-causing fungi of onion sold in Umuahia and their response to selected botanicals. Infected onion (White and red) n= 12, were sourced from Orie-Ugba and Ubani markets for isolation and identification using standard techniques. Also, response of Rhizopus sp, Fusarium sp and Aspergillus niger to aqueous extracts of clove and African nutmeg seeds were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo (before and after treatment). Experiments were laid out in CRD in triplicates. Clove (Syzgium aromaticum) and African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) extracts respectively reduced Aspergillus niger (71.55, 42.96%) Fusarium sp (63.82,58.28%), and Rhizopus sp (67.79,26.06%) in-vitro. Clove applied before and after fungi inoculation respectively reduced growth of Aspergillus niger (69.64,60.71%), Rhizopus sp, (88.89,84.44%) and Fusarium sp (70.00, 58.89%) in-vivo. Growths of Aspergillus niger (69.64,69.64%), Rhizopus sp, (50.00,53.33%) and Fusarium sp (82.22,58.89%) were reduced by African nutmeg before and after treatment respectively. Extracts showed promising prospect for control of Fusarium sp, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp growth in both trials and could be explored for management of post-harvest onion rots at pre and post stages of fungal infection.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> F. T. Obani Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 395 400 Nematodes Associated with Citrullus lanatus in Kwara State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1961 <p><em>The cultivation of watermelon is rapidly becoming popular in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa because of its economic and nutritional benefits. However, one of the factors limiting watermelon production is plant parasitic nematodes. This study was carried out to determine the abundance, occurrence, and distribution of nematodes infecting watermelon in some areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 96 root and soil samples were collected from 8 watermelon growing areas of the State, namely; Ajase-ipo 1, Ajase-ipo 2, Unilorin, Olomu, Eyenkorin, Onireke, Lafiaji 1, and Lafiagi 2. Extraction was done using a modified Baermann extraction tray method, while the nematodes were identified to genus level under a compound microscope. Five endoparasitic and ectoparasitic nematode genera were detected from the roots and soils; Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Helicotylenchus, and Criconema. Results revealed that Meloidogyne spp. was the most prevalent nematode with 492.61 and 272.44 for the root and soil samples respectively. Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. had the highest frequency of occurrence of 87.50% in the root, followed by Pratylenchus spp. with 62.50% and Scutellonema spp. with 50%. More nematodes were also recovered from the root than from the soil. This study provides fundamental information about the distribution of plant parasitic nematodes that infect watermelon in Kwara State.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. A. Apalowo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 401 407 Effect of Carica papaya Extract on Seed Borne Fungal Organism of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich. Harms) Seeds https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1962 <p><em>Extracts of many higher plants have been reported to exhibit antifungal properties under Laboratory experiment. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the effect of Carica papaya plant extracts on seed borne pathogen of African yam bean. Seed health test of African yam bean was carried out using blotter paper method. Test of plant extract for inhibition of radial growth of seed borne pathogen of African yam bean was studied under in-vitro experiment at 0%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations with 0% as the control. The design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The test plant extracts of different concentrations were added into petri dishes containing molten sterilized Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and swayed gently on the Laboratory bench to allow even mixing. These were allowed to gel. Then nine-millimeter discs of a seven-day pure culture of Aspergillus flavus were aseptically placed on the center of the petri dishes containing the SDA-extract mixture. Record on radial inhibition effect of the test plant extract was kept for further analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on data on radial inhibition of test fungus. Results showed that Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus were isolated from incubated African yam bean seeds. Results also showed that Carica papaya leaf extract used was very effective and the higher the concentrations of extract, the more effective in the inhibition of radial growth of the test fungal organism. It could therefore be recommended that farmers should always conduct viability test on procured seeds for planting. That farmers should rather use plant extract such as was used in this investigation if stabilized in controlling seed borne fungal pathogens of African yam bean seeds than synthetic fungicides.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.C. Iwuagwu P.A. Eze Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 408 413 Evaluation of the Effect of Diet Containing Cinnamon and Red Pepper on Serum Biochemistry and Hematological Indices of Broiler https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1965 <p><em>pepper on serum biochemistry and hematological indices of broiler. One hundred and twenty (120) day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups and 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. A mixture of cinnamon and red pepper at the ratio of 1:1was put in broiler diets at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% at starter and finisher stages and were fed to broilers for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, 3 birds per replicate were selected and used for analyses of serum biochemistry and haematological indices. Results of serum biochemistry showed significant (P &lt;0.05) effects of dietary cinnamon and red pepper inclusion on Cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatese, alanine aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, glucose, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, neutrophils, platelet, mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration. The results of the experiment showed that cholesterol and urea levels decreased as the level of cinnamon and red pepper increased but treatment three had the normal cholesterol level for broiler. Therefore, cinnamon and red pepper mixture should be included at 1.0% for optimum growth and performance of broiler birds.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> L. C. Ugwuowo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 414 418 Comparative Toxicity Of Zingiber officinale and Deltamethrin On Prostephanus Truncatus (HORN) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1966 <p><em>In Africa, Prostephanus truncatus is a destructive pest of economic importance which has deteriorative effects on dry cassava chips in storage. The present study investigates the effects of Zingiber officinale on P. truncatus on dried cassava chips . Deltamethrin was used as the reference insecticide. The plant extract was used at different concentrations (500 μg/ml ul/ml, 250ul/ml, 125ul/ml, 62.5ul/ml, 0ul/ml(control) and 0.05ul/ml(reference)) 100g of cassava chips were put in a plastic plate and treated differently with Z. officinale and Deltamethrin, the control contains only acetone, each treatment was replicated 3times .10 unsexed P. truncatus adults were put into each plate and the plates were covered with muslin cloth held with a rubber band. Results were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 7days after treatment. All the data generated was subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) No reference in abstract. The result of the experiment showed that Z. officinale recorded one hundred percent mortality at higher concentrations of 250ul/ml and 500ul/ml,and for which time duration? its effects were similar to the reference insecticide</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M. E. Ejiofor, N. J. Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 419 422 Gender and Climate Smart Agriculture in Rice Farming in Ikwo Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1968 <p><em>The paper conducted gender analysis of adoption of climate smart agriculture (CSA) in rice farming in Ikwo Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data from 120 rice farmers (60 male and 60 female rice farmers) were collected. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that the male rice farmers had more access to improved seedlings, and tractor/machinery relative to the female rice farmers. The male rice farmers performed more roles in terms of nursery practices, fertilizer and pesticide applications, while the female rice farmers did more of rice planting, weeding, harvesting, threshing and parboiling. Male rice farmers adopted more of knowledge smart practices, information smart practices, nutrient smart practices, and water smart practices, than female farmers. The study recommends farmers to plan their yearly rice cultivation in line with accessed climate change information and effectively adopt CSA practices and techniques to avert adverse climate changes in the state.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M.N. Ovuoba R.U. Onyeneke E.E. Osuji Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 424 429 Strengthening Fisheries and Aquaculture through Climate-Smart and Gender-Sensitive Approaches in Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1969 <p><em>Climate change is a reality that is experienced in different parts of the world. For this reason, a review was conducted to understand how fisheries and aquaculture can be promoted using climate-resilient and gender-inclusive measures. Nigerian fisheries and aquaculture sub-sector has high potential for development but is already experiencing climate change impacts like flooding and extreme droughts. The sector needs to play its role in contributing to the food, nutrition and livelihood security of the people of Nigeria. Developing climate-smart approaches with a gender-balanced perspective is key to ensuring success in mitigation of its effects. For this to be possible, the challenges limiting the growth of the sector must be addressed by the policy makers, researchers, and other stakeholders. Women need to be given the right space to play their roles in the fisheries and aquaculture sector just like the men. This will require some institutional framework and support on the part of the government to be achieved. If these are done fisheries and aquaculture will achieve the desired growth envisaged in the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and National Aquaculture Strategy.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O. O. C. Evulobi N. T. Meludu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 430 434 Strengthening Livestock Systems through Climate-Smart and Gender-Sensitive Approaches: An Overview of Nigerian Livestock Production https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1970 <p><em>The livestock industry is an economic enhancer for most countries in the world including Nigeria. Livestock development remains one of the worst hits of climate change resulting to open grazing, low produce and conflicts. This has affected the herders, farmers (especially women farmers), communities and livelihoods. The ability for women to adapt to climate change mostly depend on their ability to access to farm land, credit, security of land tenure, and active participation in decision making regarding land and water resources. Climate change and its effects on livestock production as well as the vulnerable farmers and gender disparity on men’s and women’s need and priorities in adapting to climate change irrespective CSA initiatives were highlighted. Climate-smart livestock production strategies as well as CSA practices for improving livestock production and the roles of roles of agricultural extension in strengthening livestock systems through climate-smart and gender sensitive approaches were equally emphasized. There is therefore, the need for capacity building of both genders on the strategies to tackle the issues of climate change for enhanced production to achieve sustainable food production. Also, Climate-smart agricultural practices that require specific farm inputs should be made available to livestock farmers. This can be achieved through proper extension service delivery system tailored towards the immediate felt need of the livestock farmers without gender disparity.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. C. Onyemekonwu N. T. Meludu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 435 439 Efficacy of Carbendazim and other Synthetic Fungicides on Taro Leaf Blight Disease caused by Phythophtora Colocasiae https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1972 <p><em>The results of the serial concentrations of different synthetic fungicides, phytopathogenic fungi and their interactions on isolates from cocoyam had significant effects (P≤0.05) on the percentage inhibition and mycelia growth. P. colocasiae (12.50 mm) treated with hexaconazole had the lowest mycelia growth rate followed by Botryodiplodia theobromea (21.28 mm) with fludioxonil and carbendazim (24.03 mm) while Rhizopus spp (85.83 mm) and F. solani (78.798 mm) on metaxyl recorded the highest mycelia growth. The effects of different environmental stress, fungi and their interaction on mycelia growth showed significant difference on the organisms, the stress and their interactions. No mycelia growth were seen when B. theobromea were subjected to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> (5.00 mm), followed by P.colocasia (14.67 mm). In conclusion, fungicides found to be effective for the control of cocoyam leaf blight in order of merit were carbendazim, fludioxonil, hexaconazole and mancozeb. Metaxyl recorded no or little effect on the inhibition of mycelia growth of all the four fungi organisms isolated from cocoyam as the organisms have developed resistance to it. It should be used in mixture with other fungicides with different mode of actions for example mancozeb.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> J. M. Mbadianya K.I. Ugwuoke K.P. Baiyeri D. Shi, C. Chen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 440 445 Awareness of Hazardous Implication of Agrochemicals used in Dabar Kwari Dawakin Kudu Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1973 <p><em>Improper uses, handling and disposal Agrochemical could have adverse health and environmental pollution Dabar kwari in dawakin kudu is selected due it higher numbers of farmers, it is surrounded with lake and other source of irrigation farming. The main objectives are assessing the knowledge and practice regarding uses, handling Agrochemical and disposal of it. 200 farmers were randomly selected from Dabar Kwari. 70.5% used Agrochemical in the farm without protective equipment, 35.4% uses their bare hands in mixing Insecticide, herbicide and pesticide, and more 80.0% wash Agrochemical containers in the lakes surrounding the village with is main sources of water for the community, most of the farmers store Agrochemical at home. The ability to apply the right quantity of Agrochemical is low. On average the respondents have low awareness of heath implication of Agrochemical. State, Local Government and NGO can create awareness for safety measure, handling and disposal of Agrochemical among farmers and sellers of Agrochemicals. Though number of children in school, Radio program, and training program in the field. It is there recommended to included Agrochemical safety in our primary and secondary curriculum.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B.U. Sarbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 446 449 Revenue and Income Analysis of Fresh pepper Marketing in Aba North Local Government, Abia State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1976 <p><em>The study examined revenue and income analysis of fresh pepper marketing in Aba North local government area, Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socioeconomic characteristics of the marketers, marking channel and volume of trade among the channels, profitability and economic efficiency of the marketers and constraints to pepper marketing in the study area. A multistage sampling procedure involving simple random sampling methods were used to select one hundred and twenty five marketers. Primary data were collected by means of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, enterprise budgeting, Sherpherd-Futrell technique and relative importance index. Finding from socioeconomic characteristics showed that majority of the marketers were within the age bracket of 30 and 49 implying that the marketers are young, energetic, flexible in accepting new ideas and taking risk and there is a female. The result of marketing channel revealed that third channel recorded the highest percentage of (64%). The result of profitability of fresh pepper marketing showed that out of the total cost of N628, 257.5 spent by the marketers, purchases constituted (89.39%) while the least expense was interest on loan (2.68%). The enterprise generated a net return on investment of 0.3266 and the implication of this is that the marketers return 33 kobo for every 1 Naira invested in the enterprise. Decay and Rotting (Perishability), price fluctuation, Sit-at-home palaver and Cough and Catarrh were perceived as the most serious constraints in the enterprise. Stakeholders should address the economic sabotage of sit-at-home palaver which is adversely affecting perishable produce were recommended among others.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A.C. Isibor D.C. Nkamigbo Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 450 457 Urea Treatment and Ensiling Period Effects on Physico-Chemical Value of Rice Straw and Performance of Kano Brown Buck https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/1977 <p>Feed cost accounts about 50 – 80% of the total cost of animal production and its well-known fact that the shortage of feed in terms of quality and quantity during the dry season remains the, or among the most critical barriers facing animal agriculture in northern Nigeria and beyond. A three- month experiment was conducted at the teaching and research farm of the Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture Danbatta, to determine the ensiling period effect(14, 28 and 42-day) and urea treatment levels (0%,2%,4% and 6%) on physico-chemical parameters of rice straw residue and its impact on performance of Kano brown bucks. The experiment was laid in a completely randomised designed (CRD) arranged in a 3x4x4 factorial experiment. Four experimental animal groups replicated thrice were offered the experimental diets for a period of 30-day feeding trial. SAS software package was used for the data analysis and least significant difference (LSD) technique was used to separate the means. The results showed that 2% urea inclusion level significantly (P&lt;0.05) improved the physical properties(colour, odour, mouldness and temperature) and with regard to the chemical composition, CP content significantly increased at 42-day ensiling period (12.65%) and 6% urea treatment levels (13.18%), yet, the overall finding indicated that 2% urea inclusion levels yielded the best result as reflected in the liveweight gain and its therefore, 2% urea inclusion levels and 28-day ensiling period is recommended and in concluding, the research finding proved that urea above 5% level of inclusion in feed of ruminant is absolutely toxic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B.U. Sarbi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 458 461 Grazing Behaviours of four Nigerian Breeds of Cattle in Awka, South East Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/2101 <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the grazing behavior (GB) of four different breeds of cattle (Sokoto Gudali, Red Bororo, Adamawa Gudali, and White Fulani) in Awka, South East Nigeria. The study lasted for 90 days from September-December. Twenty four long weaners (average weight of 83kgs) were randomly allotted to four treatments (breeds) with six animals per treatment. The animals were subjected to rotational grazing system, co-grazed more than 6 ha of range containing grass, legumes and browse plants, the vegetative survey showed an average vegetation height of 2.6cm to 10cm. There was periodic recording of time spent Grazing, resting, bite rate and idle position from all the animals . The result show no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) in the bite rate among the four breeds of cattle, but the highest bite rate was recorded in Red Bororo 3.42 (bite/min). The highest resting time was recorded in Sokoto Gudali 48.08(mins) which is not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) from White Fulani 45.00(mins) and the least resting time was recorded in Adamawa Gudali 35.50(min) which was not significantly different from Red Bororo 39.42(mins). There was no significant different (P&gt;0.05) in grazing time among the breeds. The study further revealed average grazing time of 8:26(hrs) and resting time which ranges from 48:00 - 35:00 minutes among the four breeds. There was no significant difference in the rest position among the breeds which show laying as predominant resting position against standing. the study show that the breeds do not differ on their grazing behavior which disagree with previous works showing breed factor as sources of variation on Grazing behavior among different breeds of indigenous cattle.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C. A. Nwankwo A. E. Onyimonyi J. C. Okeke E. C. Okafor Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 462 466 The Role of Irish Potato Farmers of the Women-in-Agriculture and Youth Empowerment (WAYE) Programme in Plateau State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/2103 <p>Youth Empowerment (WAYE) programme in Plateau State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling method was employed to select 256 respondents. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires and were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean farming experience was 10 and 16 years for participating and non-participating farmers while mean farm size for participating farmers and non- participating farmers was 1.4 and 0.5 ha. The result of the findings reveals that, (55%) and (47%) of the participating farmers and non-participating farmers had secondary school education, which constituted the largest number of educational qualification attained in the study area. Factors influencing the level of participation of Irish potato farmers in WAYE programme in Plateau State are, marital status (3.72, P&lt;0.01), sex (2.25, P&lt;0.05), years of Irish potatoes production (9.85, P&lt;0.01), household size (10.92, P&lt; 0.01), awareness of WAYE programme (4.93, P&lt; 0.01), a unit increase in these factors will subsequently influence the level of participation of Irish potato farmers in WAYE programme. The mean crops output of WAYE programme participants (537,807.1kg) was significantly higher than non-participants (165,571.43kg). The difference in the mean crops output levels was largely attributed to participation in WAYE programme. The calculated Z-test value (14.74) for crops output and income (22.93) was significant at 1% probability level. It was therefore recommended that WAYE programme be extended to other farming communities in Plateau State, so as to accelerate the poverty alleviation among women farmers in the State.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B. D. Adamu H. Y. Michael, Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 467 471 Assessment of two Biofertilizers under two Crop Combination on Microbial Population and Plant Growth in South Eastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/2104 <p>Biofertilizers are becoming increasingly popular in many countries and for many crops, but very few studies on their microbial population and early plant growth in sandy loam soil have been conducted. Therefore, this research evaluated two different biofertilizers: treated Ageratum specie and Crotoloria specie in the Soil Science Department Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Anambra State, Nigeria during 2016 cropping seasons in the growth chamber of the Faculty of Agriculture, using two different test crops (Moringa and Tomato) which was laid out in complete randomized block (CRD). The experiments were conducted in pots with dimension of 17cm × 19cm in length and depth. The bottoms portions of the pots were uniformly perforated for proper aeration. Ten seeds were planted after which they were thinned down to 8 seedlings 10 DAP, later, the remaining 2seedlings were harvested 60 DAP to evaluate the biomass production in each stage respectively. Significant biomass and soil microbial population increase due to biofertilizer use were observed in all experimental treatments. The biofertilizer effect on Moringa and tomato growth did not significantly differ. Nevertheless, positive effects of the biofertilizers occurred on the biological properties. However, the trends in these results seem to indicate that biofertilizers might be most helpful in rainfed environments. However, for use in these target environments, biofertilizers need to be evaluated under conditions with abiotic stresses typical of such systems such as drought, soil acidity, or low soil fertility.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C.U. Ibeh E.U. Chime E. C. Nnabuihe M. J. Okafor M. N. Ibigweh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-03-24 2023-03-24 472 477