e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic <p>Conference e-proceedings from the Faculty of Agriculture International Conferences are contained here.</p> <p>The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the editorial board but of individual authors. The Editorial board of the <strong><em>Faculty of Agriculture International Conference</em></strong><strong> (FAIC) </strong>appreciates those who subscribe to the journal, reviewers and the consulting editors for their contributions.</p> <p>Authors are to send their articles through:</p> <p><a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a> or <a href="mailto:[email protected]">[email protected]</a></p> Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka en-US e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference Digitalisation of Agriculture and Bio-Conservation for Food Security https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3799 Onyekachi Chukwu Chika Florence Ikeogu Eucharia Adaobi Obidiebube Cordelia I. Ebenebe Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 Big Data Science and the Application of Digital Twins: Imperatives for Africa’s Agriculture https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3438 <p><em>Keynote Address presented on the Occasion of the 2<sup>nd</sup> Faculty of Agriculture International Conference (Hybrid), Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Held at the University Auditorium, Awka Campus of the University from 12<sup>th</sup> to 14<sup>th</sup> March, 2024, during the Openning Ceremony Being Thursday 13<sup>th</sup> March, 2024</em></p> Yemi Akinbamijo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 1 8 Exploring Trends of Digitalization in Natural Resources and Bio-Conservation Management https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3443 <p><em>In this era of rapid technological advancements, the application of digitalization in natural resources and bio-conservation management has become crucial for sustainable development and biodiversity preservation. This review paper systematically examines the evolving trends, applications, and implications of digital technologies in the context of natural resources and bio-conservation management. Drawing upon a wide range of sources, including scholarly articles, case studies, and technological assessments, the paper outlines the transformative potential of digital tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, and the Internet of Things (IoT) in enhancing the effectiveness of conservation efforts. The analysis reveals that digitalization facilitates unprecedented levels of data collection, processing, and dissemination, enabling more informed decision-making and fostering greater transparency and collaboration among stakeholders. Specifically, the paper highlights how digital technologies are being employed to monitor ecosystem changes, track wildlife populations, optimize resource use, and engage communities in conservation practices. Furthermore, the review identifies key challenges associated with the digital transition, including technological accessibility, data security, privacy concerns, and the need for capacity building among conservation practitioners.</em></p> Shadrach O. Akindele Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 9 18 Characterization of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) Accessions using Quantitative Traits https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3451 <p><em>An experiment was conducted at the Crop Science and Horticulture Agricultural farm, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, to study the characterization of 5 mung bean accessions using quantitative traits.The five mung bean genotypes were :Tvr 72,Tvr73,Tvr98,Tvr77 and Tvr 8.The randomized complete block design experiment that was replicated 3 times showed a reasonable level of variations in the mung bean accessions. Tvr8 had the highest plant height (52.7cm) while Tvr73 had highest number of leaves (43). Tvr77(26) and Tvr8(25.9) had highest number of pods, highest number of seeds per pod(12.8) and (13.6) and also the longest pods(9.23) and (9.7) respectively. Traits like pod colour, seed colour, pigmentations are qualitative and were not affected by the environment. Tvr77 and Tvr8 accessions are therefore, recommended for use in mung bean seed production while Tvr73 is recommended for forage production. The findings from this Research can be used for the selection of genotypes for breeding purposes in mung bean.</em></p> C. C. Obasi H. Okolie E. A Obidiebube O. A. Umeh C. L. John R. C. Ike B. Gabriel Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 20 24 Amino Acids Profile of Selected Five Genotypes of Cowpea and Mung Beans Grown in Awka, Rain Forest Zone https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3454 <p><em>A comprehensive analysis was done at the Food Profiling Biotechnology Laboratory, National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, Umuahia to explore, as well as to compare the amino acid components of five cowpea (Vigna aunguiculata) (ITA 1,2,3,4,5) and five mung bean (Vigna radiata) (TVR 72,73,77,8,98) genotypes that were grown at the Research Farm of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The results showed that the mung bean genotypes were high in alanine, glycine and valine while the cowpea genotypes were high in tryptophan, methionine and other sulfur-containing essential aminoacids. Both crops have relatively similar arginine, isoleucine, lysine, serine and tyrosine contents. While they reduce flatulence, the tested mung beans genotypes values for threonine, tryptophan and total sulphur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) were nutritionally inadequate but this can be compensated by consuming mung bean in combination with cereals. Based on individual genotypes contents of essential amino-acids, we recommend cowpea genotypes:ITA 1,2, 5 and mung bean genotypes:TVR 72,73 and 98.</em></p> H. Okolie E. A Obidiebube C. C. Obasi B. Nwosu C. L. John C. Ikechukwu O. A. Umeh C. Onwuchekwa Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 25 30 Determination of Helminths in Wastewater and Vegetable Irrigated in Kawo Irrigation Farm of Kaduna State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3459 <p><em>The research is to investigate Helminths for the untreated municipal wastewater and vegetables produced in the Kawo abattoir irrigation farm. The location lies between latitude 100 34' 40.8'' E and longitude 070 26'39.1'' N of Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Abattoir and municipal wastewater confluence at a point where farmers get the wastewater for irrigation, not minding the health implication involve. The wastewater sample was collected from three different points designated as WW01, WW02, WW03, and WW04. The samples were analyzed for Helminths in the wastewater and fresh vegetable produce. The following Helminths were discovered, (i) Ova of Fasciolopsis buski, (ii) Segment of Tapeworm (Tania saginata), (iii) Cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (iv) Ova of Ascaris lumbricoid were found and above the recommended guidelines of which specify &lt;1 nematode egg per liter of wastewater. This study observed that untreated wastewater used for irrigation at the study site contains hazardous Helminths. This practice can be dangerous to consumers and life-threatening to farm workers due to direct constant physical contact with the wastewater. It recommended that farmers should practice the use of stabilization ponds (aerobic, facultative, and maturation) before using the water for irrigation, adoption of safer irrigation methods such as drip or sub-surface irrigation to minimize contact of crops with contaminants present in irrigation water, and farmers around the study site should make use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, boots, trousers, and long sleeve shirts during farm work to reduce the level of exposure.</em></p> A. Yahaya U. I. Salihi M. Lawal Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 31 36 Evaluation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Genotypes for Growth and Yield in Ifite-Ogwari, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3462 <p><em>The quest for increased cucumber productivity in Nigeria's diverse agro-ecological zones necessitates the continuous evaluation of promising genotypes. This study delves into the yield potential of five cucumber genotypes (Oliveira Bold F1, Amarisa Super F1, Gorald, CU99, and Darina) cultivated in Ifite-Ogwari, Anambra State. Conducted under a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications, the experiment meticulously tracked various parameters including flower initiation, leaf morphology (number and width), vine length, and most importantly, yield components (fruit circumference, length, weight, and number). The findings unveiled significant variations among the genotypes, painting a nuanced picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Jorad and Darina emerged as potential champions, demonstrating impressive yield attributes. Notably, Jorad produced the highest number of fruits (7.00 per plant) at 7 weeks after planting, significantly outperforming its counterparts. Furthermore, Darina showcased remarkable fruit weight (356.33 g), highlighting its potential for heavier harvests. These findings are particularly encouraging for farmers seeking high-yielding cucumber varieties in the Ifite-Ogwari region. Evaluating these promising genotypes under different agro-ecological conditions and exploring their suitability for large-scale commercial production will provide a more comprehensive understanding of their potential impact on regional cucumber production. Additionally, investigating the underlying factors contributing to the superior performance of Jorad and Darina could pave way for breeding programs focused on developing even more productive cucumber varieties adapted to the specific needs of Nigerian farmers. By unveiling high-yielding genotypes and pinpointing areas for further exploration, this study contributes valuable knowledge to the ongoing pursuit of sustainable and productive cucumber cultivation in Nigeria.</em></p> O. A. Umeh T. C. Ogbu I. S. Umeh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 37 42 Shelf-Life Prediction Model of Bambara Nut (Vigna Subterranea) Flour: Polynomial Model, Sorption Isotherms and Physico-Mechanical Properties https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3463 <p><em>Bambara nut samples were obtained, milled, packaged in Low Density Polyethylene and stored for a period of 12 weeks under controlled temperatures of 20°C, 30°C and 40°C respectively. At weekly intervals, the flours were analyzed for proximate composition, Physicomechanical properties and sorption isotherms. The data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Design-Expert software (Version 7.0.0, Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, USA). The experimental data generated was fitted to a polynomial regression model for predicting maximum shelf-life. In order to correlate the response variables to the independent variables, multiple regressions were used to fit the coefficient of the polynomial model. The quality of fit of the model was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The suitability of the models was compared and evaluated using correlation coefficient (R2). The study showed that all the parameters studied were significant in predicting the shelf-life of Bambara nut flour. The results obtained in the study showed that the response surface model developed is a good one. The model correlation coefficient (R2) of the responses was found to be 0.9983, 0.9701, 0.9688, 0.9862, 0.9138 and 0.9531 for the flour moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents, respectively. Levels of significance obtained were 0.001, 0.02, 0.03, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.02 for the flour moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents which were high and attested to the fitness of the model in evaluating the responses. Optimum moisture content and storage time were found to be 6.32% (wb) and 23.62 weeks. The study confirmed that the model developed is adequate to optimize these process conditions.</em></p> S. A. Ngabea M. A. Suleiman Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 43 54 Effect of Plant Growth Response of Ocimum species to Diverse Population Densities in Southern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3464 <p><em>A field study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Ocimum species at five population densities at the research farm of Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Awka, Anambra State, The research was a 2 x 5 factorial experiment laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) which was replicated three times. Two species of Ocimum spp (Ocimum sanatum and Ocimum gratissium) represented the main factor while the sub-factor consisted of five population densities (60,000 plant/ha, 100,000 plant/ha, 200,000 plant/ha, 300,000 plants/ha and 400,000 plant/ha The nursery was done on 3rd of May 2021 while transplanting was done on the 29th of May 2021 at a plant spacing of 50 x 33.3cm, 50 x 10cm, 25 x 20cm, 33.3 x 10cm and 25 x 10cm. Data were collected on plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches, leaf area (cm2), stem girth (cm). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT release 7.2DE Statistical software and means were separated using Fishers least significant difference (LSD). Plant density of 400,000 plants/h (25 x 10cm plant spacing) significantly improved biomass attribute of Ocimum gratissium and Ocimum Sanctum. While under the plant density of 300,000 plants/ha (33.3cm x 10cm plant spacing) gave best performance for the growth parameters measuerd. Ocimum sanctum grew more luxuriantly and performed better than Ocimum gratissimum; in all the growth parameters measured.</em></p> E. O. Obianokwalu D. N. Igili E. N. Ngonadi I. Uko Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 55 61 Effect of Different Organic Manure Rates on Yield and Post Harvest Storage of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3465 <p><em>The experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria to study the effect of different organic manure rates on yield and okra. Different manure sources from poultry and pig and the rates were: 0 ton/ha, 5 tons/ha, 10 tons/ha, 15 tons/ha, and 20 tons/ha. The 2 x 5 factorial experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three (3) times. Data were collected on growth and yield. For yield parameters, pig manure at15 t/ha rate gave the highest yield however, the interaction effects showed that 15t/ha poultry manure x yield produced the highest number and weight yield of pods, while 15 t/ha pig manure out performed in the length and width of okra pods. Hence, poultry manure at 15t/ha and 20t/ha pig manure were recommended. Considering the effect of postharvest storage materials on the physiological deterioration rates of okra pods, newspaper, and dried plantain leaves maintained better postharvest storage quality of okro than other storage materials.</em></p> E. A Obidiebube H. Okolie C. C. Obasi S. O. Muojiama S. N. Obasi A. C. Ozurumba-Eboh F. Oshine Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 62 67 Morphological Variation in Bitter Leaf Accessions (Vernonia amygdalina) in IfiteOgwari, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3466 <p><em>In spite of the increasing relevance and benefits of bitter leaf, especially in southern part of Nigeria were the leaves are mostly used to prepare unique delicacy, there is still dearth information on the genetic variability among different Vernonia amygdalina found in Southern part of Nigeria especially Anambra State.The major aim of this work is to; assess the morphologicalcharacteristics of various accessions collected. Determine if variation in bitter leaf can be assessed by its morphological features. The research was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Ifite-Ogwari, Anambra state, Nigeria. The experiment was carried out as a Randomized complete block design (RCBD) which was replicated three times. Statistically there was no significant difference among the accessions. Ifite-Ogwari and Umunze gave a significant increase in both growth parameters and yield. Therefore, planting of the accessions respectively is well recommended for optimum production of bitter leaf plant in southern part of Nigeria.</em></p> O. A. Umeh M. F. Uzochukwu O. O. Ndukwe H. Okolie Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 68 73 Effects of Organic Soil Amendment on the Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Ifite Ogwari, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3467 <p><em>The experiment was conducted at Ifite Ogwari, Anambra State to evaluate the effects of some soil amendments on thegrowth and yield performance of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three (3) replications and an Okra variety made up my treatment. This experiment was carried out in a pottedbag with a total of (24) treatments including the control experimental bag. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for completely randomized design. The treatment means were separated using least significant difference at 5% probability level. The results obtained showed that treatment T8 (poultry manure + rice husk + compost + cow dung) performed significantly well in plant height and number of leaves, while on the other hand treatment T5 ( poultry manure + rice husk + top soil ),T2 ( poultry manure + top soil ) and T3( cow dung + top soil) performed notably better with respects to leaf area , number of fruits, stern girth and fruit weight.</em></p> O. A. Umeh V. C. Ebunilo I. S. Umeh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 74 80 Comparative Effect of Storage Materials on Quality of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Awka-South Local Government Area, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3468 <p>An investigation was carried out at the research Laboratory of Plant protection of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka to compare effects of storage materials on quality of okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD) replicated six times. The experiment consisted of storing of freshly harvested okra fruits in two storage media viz: woven baskets (lined with bitter leaves and unlined baskets) and perforated Paper Cartons (lined with bitter leaves and unlined cartons). The baskets and perforated cartons containing the okra fruits were then kept on laboratory benches. Okra fruits in the storage media were covered with white transparent nylon material and observed for 14 days. At the end of the period, the fruits were sorted out into relatively healthy fruits, rotted fruits, green fruits, light green fruits, spotted fruits and shriveled fruits. The weight loss of okra fruits was recorded to an accuracy of 0.01g using mettle balance model (P1200). Results showed that packaging materials had significant effect on physical qualities of Okra fruits after two weeks of storage, where unlined cartons had the highest (38.3%) number of relatively healthy fruits followed by 37.5% in unlined baskets while the least (30.8%) was obtained in lined baskets. The results also showed that packaging materials had significant effect on moisture content of Okra fruits stored in different storage materials where there was lesser moisture loss in Okra fruits stored in lined cartons compared to other storage packages. The results as well showed that 20.55% moisture was lost from Okra fruits stored in lined cartons from the first day to the seventh day while 32.48% moisture loss occurred from the same number of Okra fruits from the seventh day to the fourteenth day. From this study it could therefore be recommended that farmers should adopt the use of unlined perforated cartons for the storage and transportationof their freshly harvested okra fruits since it showed the best extension of shelf-life of Okra fruits.</p> C. C. Iwuagwu U. V. Ezeufoh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 81 85 Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes on Pepper in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3469 <p><em>A survey was conducted in pepper-producing farms in Ilorin, Kwara State between July and November 2021 to study the distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes affecting pepper and to investigate the effects of soil physico-chemical properties on the nematodes. A total of twenty four plant roots and nine soil samples collected from thirty pepper farms were examined. Result showed that seven genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. The location with the highest occurrence was the Ilorin township Stadium with 100% frequency. Relative abundance of Meloidogyne was greater than that of the other nematode species. The results indicate that, apart from the direct influence of the host plant, soil properties play an important role in the abundance, distribution and structure of plant parasitic nematode communities. This validates the potential of nematodes as bioindicator organisms of soil health.</em></p> O. A. Apalowo H. S. Baba M. B. Babatunde O. H. Nwoye D. A. Akinyemi D. E. Iheatru Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 86 89 Organic Fertilizer Sources and Rates for Potted Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del.) Production https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3470 <p><em>Bitter leaf possesses medicinal, pharmaceutical and bioprotective properties aside its nutritional importance. However, there is a dearth of documented information on the production requirements of this important crop as pot-plants with regards to fertilizer source and rates. A pot experiment was conducted at Crop Science and Horticulture Teaching and Research Farm, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka to study the effect of organic fertilizer types (poultry manure, cow dung, poultry manure + cow dung) and rates (0, 5, 10, 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) on the growth, fresh leaf yield and dry matter partitioning of bitter leaf. The experiment was laid out as 3x4 factorial experiment fitted into completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated ten times. Data were collected on growth and fresh leaf yield. Organic fertilizer types and rates and the interaction significantly (P&lt;0.05) influenced the growth and yield of bitter leaf. Applications of 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> poultry manure or combined application of poultry manure and cow dung at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> significantly (P&lt;0.05) produced tallest plants and highest number of leaves. The combined application of poultry manure and cow dung also produced highest fresh leaf yield (2.15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). This was followed with poultry manure applied at either 10 or 15 t ha-1 (1.96 and 1.97 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). It was therefore recommended that growers should apply poultry manure at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> or combination of poultry manure and cow dung at 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for enhanced growth and leaf yield of bitter leaf in containers.</em></p> O. O. Ndukwe I. K. Okore J. C. Jude R. C. Osuafor U. F. Oshine Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 90 95 Effect of Formulated Plant Extract and Cypermethrin on Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3471 <p><em>This study set out to evaluate the performance of formulated plant extracts such as insecticide and cypermethrin on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L). The treatments Azadrachta indica, and Jatropha curcas leaves formulated as insecticides, Control (Unsprayed), and Cypermethrin (Synthetic insecticide) were applied in the control of insect pests of cucumber, and the characteristics studied included the Number of leaves, Number of defoliated leaves, Numbers of fruit/plot and Numbers of damaged fruit. A field experiment was conducted in the teaching and Research Farm of Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora during the planting season of 2023. The Experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. 200ml of formulated plant extract mixed with 800ml of water while 1ml of synthetic insecticide mixed with 1000ml of water was sprayed using a hand sprayer in the early hours of the day and this was done every week throughout the study. Results showed that the number of leaves and the numbers of fruit/plot were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) greater for plants sprayed with the formulated plant extracts and cypermethrin compared to the unsprayed plot. Thus it indicated the effectiveness of the plant extracts in controlling insect pests of cucumber, which significantly improve the growth and yield of the crop. It was observed that the application of J. curcas leaves formulated as insecticide exhibited insecticidal activity when compared to synthetic insecticide and unsprayed plots. However, the application of A. indica also improves the growth and yield of cucumber when compared to the synthetic and unsprayed plot but is not as effective as J. curcas. These findings suggest that the formulated plant extract can be used to enhance the growth and yield of cucumber as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the study area.</em></p> K. A. Akanji N. O. Olla S. K. Omilabu O. S. Oladapo O. O. Awodutire E. N. Akanji Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 96 100 Tree Species Diversity, Richness and Status in some Selected Market in Obi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3472 <p><em>The study was carried out to assess the abundances, richness, diversity and status of tree species across five markets vicinities in Obi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State Nigeria. The five markets randomly selected included Daddere, Obi, Tudun Adabu, Agyragu and Adudu markets with all selected tree species identified at species level and the number of individuals enumerated. The result revealed the presence of 196 trees species belonging to 10 families in 19 deferent tree species. Daddare market recorded the highest diversity index of 1.798, while Obi, Adudu, Agyeragu and Tudun Adabu markets was 1.573, 1.407, 1.340, and 1.214 respectively. The Gamma diversity value was 2.209 for the tree species with the tree species richness for the Gamma tree species highest for Margaleaf value (3.40), Daddare market (1.780), Obi (1.763), Adudu (1.698) while, TudunAdabu recorded Margaleaf value (1.365) and Agyeragu recorded the least value (1.202). The status of tree species is relatively stable with only few tree species endangered and Azahdracta indica was the only trees species found across all the markets. Consequently, the tree species diversity and richness were relatively low which can be improved by shops owners in the markets by planting at least a tree in their shop environ.</em></p> T. M. Soba H. I. Ndagi H. H. Mairafi I. O. Ibrahim L. A. Umar B. S. Abdulazeez Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 102 109 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Bodija Plank Market, Southwest Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3473 <p>This study investigated the social and environmental impact of Bodija plank market on the immediate environment. The study area comprises nine (9) zones; five (5) zones were selected randomly, and ten (10) respondents were selected randomly in each zone, making a total of fifty (50) respondents for the study. A well-structured questionnaire was administered for primary data collection from the respondents. Secondary data were obtained from existing literature. 90.0% of the respondents were male and were within the age bracket of 41-50 years (50.0%). 76.0% of the respondents were married, were of Yoruba origin (96.0%), and earned between ₦10,000 and ₦60,000 monthly (58.0%). 42.0% had secondary education, and 44.0% had been in the business for 6-10 years. Most of the respondents (70.0%) agreed that the forest and wildlife resources of the study area were rich in its early days, while 60.0% stated the presence of rare/endangered species peculiar to the area during that time. Additionally, 76.0% stated that deforestation activities occurred during the process of plank market establishment, and 72.0% noted the absence of Environmental Impact Assessment before establishing the study area. 60.0% of the respondents agreed that the mill has positive impacts on community development, while 64.0% disagreed that the mill's establishment negatively impacts community development. The study identified continued sourcing for raw materials, loss of biodiversity, noise pollution, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and improper waste disposal as the major negative impacts of the study area and highlighted different mitigation measures for the negative impacts identified.</p> F. J. Moshood O. E. Asuquo W. F. Oguntola A. A. Ademola J. O. Urama A. A. Jayeola Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 110 123 Digital Innovations for Sustainable Forest Management: A Review of Strategies and Applications in the Nigerian Context https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3474 <p><em>The sustainable management of forest resources is imperative for environmental preservation and societal well-being, particularly, for countries like Nigeria facing significant challenges in resource governance. Traditional approaches have proven inadequate in addressing issues such as deforestation, illegal logging, and insufficient monitoring and enforcement. In response, the integration of digital tools present promising solutions to enhance forest resource management in Nigeria. Digital technologies, including satellite monitoring, remote sensing, GIS, and big data analytics offer opportunities for real-time data driven decision-making and improved governance. By adopting digital strategies, Nigeria can address forestrelated challenges, combat illegal activities, and promote large-scale forest restoration and reforestation initiatives. Thus, integrated land use planning, supported by digital tools, fosters sustainable development by balancing conservation objectives with economic growth.</em></p> P. O. Ogunbamowo M. B. Olaniyi O. S. Ariwoola O. O. Popoola Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 124 129 Preliminary Assessment of Bird Species Diversity in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3475 <p>Birds are excellent bio indicators of health of biodiversity. Urbanization has been identified as one of the causes for bird decline. This study aimed at assessing bird diversity and distribution within Chukwuemeka Odumegwu University (COOU), Igbariam campus, Anambra State, Nigeria with a view to providing baseline information for ecological management. The study area was stratified into forested and open spaces; hence, 5 plots of 100 m × 100 m size were systematically laid in each stratum. Bird activities were recorded from line transects with stating points systematically determined in each plot for one (1) month. Birds were identified to species level. The species compositions were analyzed using Shannon Wiener (H') diversity and Pielou’s richness (E) indices. A total of 1984 birds distributed in birds consisting of 73 species distributed among 28 families were recorded COOU. Cisticolidae and Estrildidae were the most dominate family. Streptopelia semitorquata (Red-eyed dove) had the highest Relative density (RD) of 13.58% in the open space and 21.30% in the forested habitats. The result showed that COOU had H' and E had values of 3.20 and 0.461 for the forested area and 3.18 and 0.463 for the open area, respectively. The study concluded that COOU Igbariam campus has high bird species diversity. Furthermore, the design of programmes that encourage nature conservation were recommended.</p> G. A. Ukpeli Onyekachi Chukwu A. E. Ibe J. U. Ezenwenyi T. T. Okafor M. A. Adeyemi S. O. Ezenwankwo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 130 136 Digitalization of Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: A Review of Concept, Status, Challenges and Way Forward https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3476 <p>Nigeria prioritizes the revitalization of forestry due to the abundance of forest resources in the nation and the various challenges that the forestry sector faces. Despite the significant proportion of forest cover, Nigeria has high rates of deforestation driven by factors such as urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other challenges including land degradation, illegal logging, and inadequate enforcement and monitoring. Nigeria can tackle long-standing issues with forestry management and advance toward sustainable development goals with the help of digitization. Digitalizing the management of forest resources has become essential for promoting sustainable practices and conservation initiatives. With the use of cutting-edge technologies like Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and data analytics, digitalization has the potential to significantly improve the management of Nigeria's forest resources. These technologies allow for accurate mapping, real-time monitoring, and well-informed decisionmaking, which promote sustainable practices. Through the application of advanced technologies, forestry professionals can maximize resource use, minimize waste, and encourage sustainable practices. Sustaining a long-term ecological balance relies on this efficiency. Therefore, establishing long-term monitoring tools to track the advancement and efficacy of digitization initiatives over time is critical. Thus, long-term monitoring programs to track the progress and effectiveness of digitalization initiatives over time should be established. Adaptive management strategies that enable feedback loops, iterative improvements based on data monitoring and stakeholder feedback, and continual learning are paramount. Scholars, practitioners, and policymakers can contribute to advancing the understanding, implementation, and impact of digitalized forestry resources management in Nigeria, ultimately promoting sustainable development and environmental conservation efforts.</p> B. C. Ojomah S. O. Ezenwankwo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 137 141 Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of Ise Forest Reserve, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3477 <p><em>Understanding the dynamics of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) is necessary for generating valuable information for informed decision-making in managing natural resources in the tropics. However, relevant information on these dynamics of forest cover is sparse, especially in Ise Forest Reserve. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the changes in land cover in Ise Forest Reserve between 2000 and 2020. Utilizing imagery from Landsat 7 and 8 acquired from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) database, covering the years 2000, 2010, and 2020, we employed a maximum likelihood algorithm to classify the images. Three LULC classes were identified: Forest, Farmland, and Settlement. Our analysis revealed significant shifts in land cover over the studied period. In 2000, forest coverage accounted for 87.5% of the reserve area in 2000, decreasing to 77.46% in 2020. Conversely, farmland increased from 10.74% in 2000 to 17.24% in 2020, while settlement areas expanded from 1.71% to 5.30% during the same period. These changes indicate the impact of anthropogenic activities in the area. In conclusion, LULC changes in Ise forest reserve revealed a concerning trend of deforestation and land cover change due to human activities. This research contributes valuable insights into the evolving landscape dynamics of the reserve, providing essential information for conservation efforts and sustainable land management practices.</em></p> D. A. Akintunde-Alo Y. T. Owoeye A. E. Oyediran O. O. Komolafe Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 142 151 Gender Participation in Agricultural Digitalization: Prospects and Challenges https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3485 <p><em>Agricultural digitalization offers new opportunities across the world, and holds promises for enhanced productivity growth and improved well-being of all citizens. However, a significant gender gap in the access, use and ownership of digital technologies is still present in many economies and beyond, limiting the equitable realization of the benefits of digital transformation. Gender access to digital tools and digital competencies affect rural smallholders’ participation in agricultural digitalization. Total harmonization of both men and women in agricultural digitalization is a road map to agricultural sustainability and food security. Placing gender divide gaps among farmers in terms of access to technological tools will not only create a lacuna in the field of agriculture but also will subject the people to hunger and starvation. Gender-inclusive solutions that help address barriers related to access, knowledge and skills, among others, are highlighted in this paper. Closing the gender gap in agriculture would produce significant gains for society by increasing agricultural productivity, reducing poverty and hunger, and increasing economic growth of the nation. Gender participation in agricultural digitalization is hampered by structural challenges, such as access to internet connectivity, poor or weak infrastructure, policy environment and regulations, and the limited ability of individuals to use the digital solutions. Despite all these challenges, women generally have great potentials for sustaining agricultural production and family income, if given adequate incentives and gender equity. Improvement in their social status and productivity is to increase output. Therefore, women should be allowed to have access to all the productive resources necessary for agricultural production. This paper looks at digitalization in agriculture from gender perspective. It investigates the prospects and challenges of gender participation in agricultural digitalization and zooms in on the potential opportunities that digitalization provides to women, especially in the developing world, and on the obstacle they face to benefit from it.</em></p> O. E. Afia Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 153 162 Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Women Participation in Agricultural Digitization in Zangon Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3486 <p><em>Agriculture, a fundamental sector globally, is undergoing a digital transformation, yet the participation of women in this transition remains variable due to socio-cultural dynamics. The research delved into how societal norms, cultural perceptions, access to resources, educational opportunities, and gender roles impact women's engagement in adopting digital tools and technologies within the agricultural sphere. This study analyzed between sociocultural factors and women's involvement in agricultural digitization initiatives. Employing qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this research aimed to uncover the multifaceted barriers and facilitators influencing women's participation in agricultural digitization. The study drew upon interviews, surveys, and case studies to comprehend the nuances of socio-cultural factors that shape women's decision-making, access to information, and technology adoption in agricultural practices. Factors found to influence rural women farmers’ decision on adopting agricultural digitalization were gender roles and expectations (0.000), access to land (0.098), networks and support systems (0.036), decision-making power (0.000), access to education (0.082), age of farmers (0.093), social stigma and discrimination (0.00) and Technological Literacy (0.044). Addressing socio-cultural barriers was crucial in ensuring equitable access to technological advancements, fostering economic empowerment, and sustainable development within the agricultural sector. Findings of this research would contribute significant insights into designing gender-inclusive policies, tailored interventions, and empowerment strategies aimed at enhancing women's agency and involvement in agricultural digitization.</em></p> E. D. Yakubu E. A. Sheyin B. Bartholomew E. S. Baranzan S. Y. Elkanah Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 163 166 Gender Participation in Agricultural Digitalization in Zangon-Kataf Local Government Areas, Kaduna State – Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3487 <p><em>This research collected primary data by administering 80 structured questionnaires to rural women within their communities, focusing on the domain of agricultural digitalization in the Zangon-Kataf Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The data analysis employed various statistical methods, including descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation), correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between education level and digitalization engagement, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to identify factors contributing to rural women's ability to promote agricultural digitalization, and chi-square tests to assess the association between challenges/prospects and effectiveness in promoting agricultural digitalization. The findings revealed that 46.2% of respondents belonged to the 46 to 60 years age group, 38.7% had a higher educational level, 30.0% were classified as ‘married’, 37.5% identified farming as their primary occupation, and 46.3% reported a higher percentage of women earning below N50. The tested hypotheses indicated a moderate to weak negative correlation of -0.140, illustrating the relationship between variables such as the level of education and involvement in digitalization activities. In conclusion, the study unveils significant socio-economic characteristics of rural women in the study area, providing valuable insights into their demographic profile and pivotal role in advancing agricultural digitalization. The research recommends that telecommunication companies, educational institutions and community-based organizations implement digital literacy programs tailored to the unique needs of rural women.</em></p> M. N. Gugong D. La’ah E. A. Sheyin S. Y. Elkannah B. Samuel U. Sambo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 167 175 The Assessment of Gender-Based Participation in Agricultural Digitization in Obi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3488 <p><em>Agriculture is recognized as an engine of growth at local and international levels as it has the potentials to improve food security of a country. Gender disparities in agriculture are mainly characterized by unequal access to agricultural inputs. The current wave of increased crisis over land tenure between farmers and herders in Nigeria calls for serious concern. Agricultural digitization has created a veritable opportunity for women to scale through modern day agricultural barriers. Therefore, we seek to address three major objectives, which are to; assess the factors affecting gender participation in agriculture, evaluate the level of agricultural digitization among farming households and determine gender-based constraints to agricultural activities in the study area. A total number of eighty (80) respondents were interviewed to generate the data for this research. The results revealed that majority (78.8%) of the household heads were male while (21.2%) were females. Furthermore, the result shows that men and women participated averagely in agricultural activities with the mean level of 2.48 and 2.43 respectively. On the adoption of agricultural digitization, result shows that majority of the respondents do not have access to digital tools and therefore, find it challenging to adopt new innovations. Also, the female gender faces more challenges that hinder them from participating in agricultural activities in the study area than men. The study therefore recommended that deliberate efforts needs to be put in place to enhance digitalization of agricultural activities among male and females in Obi LGA of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.</em></p> B. I. Kunum P. T. Anzaku S. M. Sa’aondo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 176 183 Profitability of Catfish Production among Small holder Farmers in Awka South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3489 <p><em>Nigeria, fish farming, especially catfish production has been embraced by many, regardless of age and educational qualification. According to the Federal Department of Fisheries (FDF), fisheries subsector has made significant contributions to Nigerian economy. The broad objective of the study is to determine the profitability of catfish production among smallholder farmers in Awka South Local Government Area, Anambra State. Fish production in Nigeria is not on the same level as the rapid population growth of about 200 million; with the projection of above 200 million by 2030. Thus, there exists a great deficit of fish production in the country and the inability of this industry to meet up with the supply of fish consumed annually due to the fast growing human population. The production of catfish in Nigeria is given much attention as a result of its capability to fill the demand and supply gap. Catfish production is a sustainable aquaculture and therefore, it is a lead way to national food security, wealth creation as well as nature conservation A multi stage sampling procedure was adopted in the selection of the sample size. In the first stage, Awka South Local Government Area was selected because of the dominance of catfish production in the area. 100 catfish farmers were finally selected for the study. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, multiple regression analysis and likert-type scales were used for data analysis. The study recommends that catfish is highly profitable and can contribute to food security and subsequently, economic development in Nigeria.</em></p> C. A. Nwigwe K. C. Ndem Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 185 192 Assessment of Consumer Preferences for Boiled, Smoked, and Barbecued Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3490 <p><em>Acceptability of smoked, boiled and barbecued catfish by consumers are dependent on numerous factors. Consumer acceptability study allows industries to tailor the supply towards the preference of consumers so that market could be optimized for their turn-over and profits. This study investigated consumer acceptability of boiled, smoked and barbecued African catfish in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. A total of 70 questionnaires were administered adopting multi-stage techniques to elicit information from the respondents about socio-economic characteristics of respondents, determinants of consumer preference, forms of fish consumed, The obtained data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The results showed that majority of the respondents in the study preferred barbecued catfish (47.15) irrespective of their socio-economic profile when compared to smoked catfish (40.0%) and boiled catfish (12.9%).It is recommended that efforts from government, private sectors and fish folks should be put into subsidizing the production inputs of catfish as this will in turn reduce price of catfish and encourage increased regular consumption of catfish.</em></p> C. C. Ikechukwu C. F. Ikeogu O. A. Akinrotimi H. Okolie G. C. Achugbu Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 193 199 Economics of Poultry Manure Use as Fertilizer in Imo State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3491 <p><em>The study was carried out in three agricultural zones notably Owerri, Okigwe and Orlu to evaluate the economics of poultry manure use as fertilizer in Imo State, Nigeria. A total of 240 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed from twelve local government areas drawn from the three zones. Data collected were on socio-economic characteristics, stock size and manure generation, poultry manure and environmental pollution and economic consideration of recycling poultry droppings. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Analytical tools used were descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution and percentages. The result of the survey revealed that the dominant players in the poultry industry are those between the ages of 41-50 years implying that in future, there will be decline in productivity since youths are not actively participating in the business. The survey observed that 78.33% of poultry farmers in the state stores poultry manure within the farm premises which directly contributes to environmental pollution. Result also shows that 70.83% of poultry farmers recycle poultry manure into vegetable production while those with larger output sell the excess to crop farmers. The economic benefit of recycling poultry manure by farmers for economic prosperity is high (90.83%) and this is traced from its role in conservation agriculture and soil enrichment. The study therefore recommends the use of poultry manure by all farmers as Nigeria can conserve its foreign exchange by reducing its fertilizer importation up to 50%.</em></p> G. A. Nkwocha L. U. Ihenacho K. U. Anukam A. U. Onuruka C. O. Remigius Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 201 209 Soil Fertility Capability Evaluation along River Kaduna Watershed, Northern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3492 <p><em>This study was conducted along the Kaduna River watershed with the goal of evaluating the fertility potential of the watershed soils. Six profile pits in all were excavated and described. The parameters used in the study to evaluate fertility capabilities were condition modifiers, substrata type, and type. The silt clay loam soil texture class dominated the examined soils. The textures of nearly all of the investigated soils (pits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6) ranged from silt clay loam at the top horizons to silty loam or silt clay down the horizons. The only exception was Pit 4, where silty loam was predominant at both the top and sub layers. The pH of the soil was mostly neutral (pH &gt; 5.0 &lt;6.0), with Pit 4 being the lone exception. Pit 4's pH was higher (pH = 4.92) in terms of CaCl2. All tested areas, with the exception of Pit 1, had a limitation of dryness (d) according to condition modifier classification, indicating a situation in which soils experience dryness &gt; 60 consecutive days/year within 20 cm to 60 cm depth. With the exception of Pit 4, all other examined soils had Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC) values greater than 6 Cmolkg – 1 soil below, indicating significant exchangeable cation leaching. One of the main problems with the investigated soils was their low nutritional reserve (exchangeable K &lt; 0.20 c mole kg -1 soil). Fertility Capability Classification placed Pit 1 as LCgv; Pit 2 Ldkv; Ldk in Pits 3, 5 and 6 and Ldek in Pit 4. Application of organic compounds rich in exchangeable basic cations especially K should be practiced by farmers near river Kaduna watershed. Also, the usage of river Kaduna for irrigation purposes should be increased to enhance dry season farming since rainfall duration is short in North Western Nigeria.</em></p> S. N. Obasi C. C. Obasi G. A. Alhassan Y. O. Alawode Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 210 220 Soil Physicochemical Properties as Influenced by Land Use Practices in Ifite Ogwari, Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3493 <p><em>Land use remains one of the major factors that can degrade soil properties with consequences on the provision of ecosystem services. This study was conducted at the faculty of Agriculture, Ifite Ogwari annex of Nnamdi Azikiwe University to investigate the influence of land use practices on selected physicochemical properties of soil. Three land use types (cassava farm, rice farm, grassland) with different histories were selected for the study. Soil samples were taken from each of the land use types in three replicates at 0-20cm and 20-40cm depths. To determine the physicochemical properties of soil under the land use types, samples were subjected to laboratory analysis. Data generated were subjected to statistical analysis and Duncan’s multiple range test was used to separate significant means at 5% probability level. The results showed a predominant clay textural class under the land use types. Highest soil bulk density and lowest total porosity was obtained under cassava farm with values of 1.94 g/cm3 and 30.31% respectively at 20-40cm depth. Soil hydraulic conductivity under the land use types ranged from 0.01- 0.03cm/hr. Aggregate stability of soils ranged from 0.32-0.56 across the depths. The silt clay ratio under land use types was generally low and showed a highly weathered soil. The soil pH was generally acidic. Soil organic carbon was generally low and ranged from 0.40-1.32% across the depths. The total nitrogen ranged from 0.01- 0.11% which was generally low across the depths. Available phosphorus was highest under cassava farm with a value of 8.33mg/kg at 0-20cm depth while grassland had the lowest available phosphorus content with a value of 0.86 mg/kg at 20-40cm depth. The cation exchange capacity under land use types ranged from 5.89 -8.65 cmol/kg at 0-20cm depth and 3.68 -7.55 cmol/kg at 20-40cm depth. It was generally observed that soil nutrients decreased as the depth increased. The studied land use types influenced the selected soil properties and this calls for soil conservation practices that could improve soil productivity.</em></p> T. V. Nwosu C. R. Igboka U. B. Ogbuefi P. C. Edeh E. C. Nnabuihe C. J. Nwaiwu O. C. Nzejekwu M. N. Ibigweh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 221 226 The Influence of Soil Health on Food Security and Nutrition: A Review https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3494 <p><em>This paper provided a review on the crucial role of soil in food production, nutritional quality, and sustainable agricultural practices. By analyzing soil composition and nutrient availability, soil management practices for sustainable agriculture, soil microorganisms and food safety, soil contamination and food quality, soil health and nutritional quality of crops, impact of climate change on soil fertility and food production, future perspectives and innovation, this article aimed to enhance our understanding of the interconnections between soil and food, ultimately contributing to the development of innovative agricultural practices and improved food security.</em></p> C. U. Obiora U. B. Obiora N. M. Anene C. S. Mmuoh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 227 231 Morphology, Physico-Chemical Properties and Classification of Soils of Coastal Plain Sands in Owerri, Imo State, Southeastern Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3495 <p><em>Assessment of soil health and fertility depends on the understanding of properties and classifications of soils. In this study, soils from Obinze, Avu, Irete, and Amakohia were examined for morphology, physical, chemical properties, and classification. Target sampling technique was used and two profiles each dug across the four study sites. A total of 37 soil samples were collected according to horizon differentiation, and analyzed in the laboratory using standard procedures. Results showed that soils were well drained, colour matrix varied from brown (2.5 YR 3/2) to red (2.5 YR 5/8), sand dominated the fine earth materials (&gt; 600 g/kg) with clay content (109 – 308 g/kg) irregularly distributed due to eluviation. Textural classes ranged from sandy loam to sandy clay loam, bulk density ranged from 1.0 – 1.77 Mg/cm<sup>3</sup> with high values recorded in Amakohia. Silt/clay ratio indicated advanced weathering (&lt; 1.0), while moisture retention capacity was low. Soil pH was moderately acidic (5.22 – 6.16), and organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels were generally low and irregularly distributed. Exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity varied irregularly down horizons, with low base saturation indicating low soil fertility. Soils were classified using USDA Soil Taxonomy and correlated with World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Obinze, Avu, and Amakohia soils were classified as Grossarenic Kandiudult, while Irete was Typic Kandiudult, and translates to Dystric Nitisols (World Reference Base). It is recommended that; the incorporation of crop residues and addition of organic manures will improve the properties of the soils for sustainable crop production.</em></p> E. C. Nnabuihe C. O. Madueke M. J. Okafor T. V. Nwosu C. U. Ibeh M. N. Ibigweh C. J. Nwaiwu C. R. Ike A. O. Onunwa I. K. Okore P. C. Nnabude Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 232 239 Prevalent Livestock Diseases in South East Nigeria and their Control Measures: A Review https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3496 <p><em>Globally, livestock diseases are major constraints to animal production and management, usually resulting in economic losses, reduced productivity and quality of livestock products. The livestock diseases prevalent in south east Nigeria were evaluated based on data collected between January 2010- June 2023 from the epidemiology unit of the Federal Department of Veterinary and Pest control services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Abuja, Nigeria. Diseases of cattle reported ranging from the highest to the least occurrence included, Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Bovine Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Fascioliasis and Mastitis. Major disease of small ruminants (sheep and goats) was Pests des Petits ruminants (PPR). Diseases of pigs reported included: African swine fever, Swine Erysipelas and piglet anaemia. Poultry diseases were New Castle Disease (NCD), Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), Coccidiosis, Fowl typhoid, Fowl pox and Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI). The article also reviewed the notifiable diseases reported by Nigeria Center for Disease Control through its Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system (IDSR) known to be zoonotic. Diseases in this category were Tuberculosis, Anthrax, Rabies, HPAI, Food and water borne diseases such as Brucellosis, Colibacillosis, Cysticercosis. Control programmes included; Biosecurity measures, disease surveillance in flocks and farms, seromonitoring of animals, routine vaccination, accurate diagnosis and treatment of sick animals, stamping out flocks once disease is detected as in the control of HPAI and CBPP. The evaluation of the disease prevalence, economic and public health effects of these diseases could not be accomplished in the course of this review as a result of underreporting and inaccurate disease identification due to lack of basic veterinary diagnostic facilities. It was therefore recommended that developing an operational digital livestock information system for livestock farmers, disease surveillance and reporting will be needful. Decentralizing the National Veterinary Research Institute Vom function of disease diagnosis/surveillance to the six geopolitical regions in Nigeria as well as employing the one health approach to livestock disease control and management would also be apposite in unlocking the livestock potentials of Southeast Nigeria.</em></p> C. F. Ikeogu C. N. Umeononigwe C. C. Amuneke C. I. Ebenebe Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 241 250 Ecological, Behavioural and Morphometric Characteristics of the Giant Cricket (Brachytrupes membranaceus L.) in Oji River LGA, Enugu State, South East, Nigeria: A Prelude to Semi-intensive Rearing Technique https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3497 <p><em>Ecological, behavioural and morphometric characteristics of the giant cricket (Brachytrupes membranaceus L.) in two towns (Awlaw and Achi) within Oji River Local Government Area of Enugu State, South east, Nigeria was investigated as a prelude to develop useful technique for semi- intensive rearing of the insect in simulated environment. Five hundred metres land area was marked out around the locations where the index trees were found in the two localities using line transect and the sites were used as study sites and visited once every week for three months Mid-March to June ending. The result showed ten species of trees that act as indicators of the presence of the cricket in the two towns. The burrows for male Brachytrupes membranaceus cricket were significantly higher in number and more in depth compared to that of females, but there was no significant difference on the burrow width for male and female burrows. The female though more robust in appearance, did not show any significant difference (P&gt;0.05) in the body weight when compared to males. Of all the morphometric parameters assessed, only the pronotum length and femur length showed significance differences (P&lt;0.05) between the male and female records. The ecological studies showed the possibility of rearing the cricket by simulating its natural milieu of Brachytrupes membranaceus in a netted outdoor environment (enclosing male and female) under laid with sandy soil at enough depth to give room for burrowing activities of Brachytrupes membranaceus and surrounded with its cherished tree species.</em></p> C. I. Ebenebe M. N. Okonkwo B. N. Ezenyilimba C. I. Ezeano Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 251 261 Nanotechnology in Livestock Production: A Review https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3498 <p><em>Nanotechnology , a technology that involves reduction of materials and structures into miniature/minute sizes that perform their functions accurately and better than the bulk size, has its usage in every aspect of life but the use in agriculture remain unharnessed especially in Africa and other developing countries. The areas of use of nanotechnology in the field of livestock production is reviewed in this paper alongside with the challenges and prospects with a view of motivating animal scientists , livestock farmers and other practitioners to adopt the technology in improving livestock productivity, animal health care management and husbandry practices that improve yield and efficiency.</em></p> C. I. Ebenebe E. I. Iheukwumere B. N. Ezenyilimba M. Oyisi C. U. Ekugba C. A. Nwankwo L. C. Ugwuowo U. C. Isaac P. I. Afomezie O. Ogbu C. F. Ikeogu Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 262 266 Contribution of Catfish Farming to Household Income in Ukwuani Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3499 <p><em>This study investigated the contribution of catfish farming to household income in Ukwuani Local Government Area (LGA), Delta State, Nigeria. The study involved 120 catfish farmers selected through a twostep sampling process. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Gross Margin analysis. Results indicated a male-dominated demographic in catfish farming, with males constituting 70.8%. The study emphasised diverse age groups, marital statuses, and educational backgrounds of catfish farmers, stressing the sector's inclusivity. Catfish farming emerged as a primary contributor to household income, constituting ₦1,008,403.53 (42.2%) of the total annual household income. Diversification of income sources, including crop farming and other economic activities, showcased the resilience of households. The study further revealed that catfish farming income significantly contributed to food (38.2%), education (20.8%), healthcare (8.0%), housing (19.7%), and savings (13.3%). Profitability analysis demonstrated that catfish farming was financially viable, with a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.54. Challenges such as high input costs (x̅ = 2.8), market fluctuations (x̅ = 2.9), and limited access to credit (x̅ = 2.8) were identified, necessitating targeted interventions. The findings provided valuable insights for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers to enhance the sustainability and socio-economic impact of catfish farming in Ukwuani LGA.</em></p> G. E. Oyita O. D. Aberji Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 268 275 A Comprehensive Analysis of Market Structure-Conduct-Performance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in North Central Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3500 <p><em>This study investigates the market structure, conduct, and performance of sugarcane in North Central Nigeria. Employing a multi-stage sampling approach, 235 sugarcane marketers were randomly selected from a pool of 575 using the Slovin’s formula. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaires and analyzed using the Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve, marketing margin, and marketing efficiency model. Market analysis reveals income inequality, with Gini coefficients ranging from 0.61 to 0.72. The closer the value of gini coefficient is to unity, the greater is the degree of income inequality and the higher is the level of concentration of sellers and vice versa. The diagonal connecting points of (0, 0) and (1, 1) on the Lorenz curve depicts the 450 line or line of perfect equality. The graph showed the cumulative percentage of sugarcane marketers against the cumulative percentage (%) of sugarcane total sales or income which reveals that the market is an imperfect market. The study identifies pricing factors influencing market conduct, with net margins and profitability ratios confirming sugarcane marketing as profitable. Sensitivity analysis suggests potential profit optimization by reducing transportation and storage costs. The study concludes that sugarcane marketing is profitable in North Central Nigeria and recommends interventions such as establishing training centers, offering capacity-building workshops, implementing flexible credit policies, and enhancing security for marketers.</em></p> M. Umar Y. U. Oladimeji H. Egwuma J. O. Owolabi Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 276 285 Leveraging Precision Agriculture for Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3501 <p><em>This article reviewed opportunities and challenges of emerging technologies with precision agriculture to address challenges of food security amid the growing population in Nigeria. Providing sufficient, safe and nutritious food to all people is one of the major global concerns historically and in the twenty-first century. Food security is usually framed in four dimensions, food availability, access to food, food use/utilization and food stability. The objectives of precision farming as reviewed by this study are to; optimize resource use, enhance crop yields, improve sustainability, and reduce environmental impact and are attainable. Precision farming harnesses data, technology, and innovation to transform these objectives into reality. Precision farming is a modern management strategy that employs the details of site-specific nutrient management, remote sensing, global information system, global positioning system, and variable rate application to precisely manage the farm. It was researched that they are installed on tractors and other field equipment to check or enhance equipment operations. Limitations identified were high costs of some of the technologies, other key barriers include the lack of digital infrastructure like Internet and electricity, lack of awareness and digital skills among farmers, and societal barriers like gender and cultural practices. Also, lack of digital skills and literacy among smallholder farmers remains a major barrier to leveraging the potential of digital technologies. Agriculturists are therefore encouraged to adopt precision farming to increase production efficiency, reduce cost of production/ waste and improve the quality of farm produce.</em></p> K. A. Bolaji S. A. Adisa D. B. Adesogan D.O. Adebayo D. O. Oke G. B. Kabir Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 286 291 Arable Crop Farmers’ Perception of Rising Food Prices in Bayelsa State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3502 <p><em>The study examined arable crop farmers’ perception of rising food prices in Bayelsa State. The objectives were factors causing high cost of food prices, effect of food price hike and farmers’ perception of rising food prices in the study area. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 110 respondents from 11 communities. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. The objectives were achieved using frequency, percentages, mean and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance. Findings showed that transportation cost (&nbsp;<img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid0.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 4.68), high cost of inputs (<img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid0.png" alt="" width="9" height="12"> = 4.36), climate change ( <img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid1.png" alt="" width="9" height="12"><img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid3.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 4.35), reduction in currency value ( <img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid2.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 4.24) and insufficient storage facilities (<img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid4.png" alt="" width="9" height="12"> = 3.93) were the factors causing high cost of food prices in the study area. The result also revealed that food insecurity (<img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid5.png" alt="" width="9" height="12"> = 4.25), increased debt ( <img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid6.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 4.11), hunger and malnutrition ( <img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid7.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 4.06) and reduced profit ( <img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid8.png" alt="" width="9" height="12">= 3.45) were the effect of food price hike on the living conditions of arable crop farm households.&nbsp; Majority of the respondents had a very negative perception (<img src="https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/public/site/images/onyekachi/blobid9.png" alt="" width="9" height="12"> = 4.44) of rising food prices. It was concluded that majority of the respondents had a very negative perception of rising food prices. Hence, the study recommends that government should provide adequate infrastructure such as good roads in order to reduce the high transportation costs that constituted a major cause of high food prices in the study area.</em></p> A. G. Ominikari S. P. Jimmy D. A. Wasini Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 292 297 A Review of the Awareness of Climate Smart Agricultural Practices by Potato Farmers in Ayamelum Local Government, Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3503 <p><em>The study reviewed the awareness of climate smart agricultural practices by potato farmers in Ayamelum local government, Anambra state. The study looks at the, current level of climate smart practices, demography and challenges of farmers in these particular areas with a view to providing critical information on climate smart awareness on sustainable farming development in the study area. Data were collected from 50 respondents who were selected through multi-stage procedure. In the first stage one (1) Local government area (Ayamelum LGA) was purposively selected from the 6 Local government areas that make up Anambra agricultural zone. In the second stage two (2) communities from the chosen local government area was randomly selected. Stage three twenty five (25) potato farmers from each of the selected communities was randomly selected and this gave a total of 50 respondents. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a four scale likert type. The survey reveals a balanced gender distribution (46% male, 54% female) and a predominantly young farming population, with the majority aged 31 to 40 years. The level of education varies and emphasises the need to develop targeted programmes in order to close knowledge gaps. Challenges such as reduced access to information, financial constraints and lack of infrastructure are faced by farmers. Targeted education programmes, financial support initiatives, enhanced information dissemination channels are recommended in order to deal with these issues. There is a widespread climate smart agricultural practice, in particular improved water use and management, integrated pest management, use of quality seeds and planting materials and Biodiversity management. These findings have laid the foundations for information and policy adjustments, as well as a community driven initiative aimed at raising local farmers' resilience and wealth.</em></p> S. E. Anarah C. B. Nwankwo I. S. Obiajulu A. P. Umeukeje Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 298 304 Analysis of marketing margin and marketing efficiency of fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera) marketing in Onitsha North South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3504 <p><em>The study examined analysis of marketing margin and marketing efficiency of fresh coconut marketing in Onitsha South LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria. The study specifically described socioeconomic characteristics of coconut marketers, marketing channels and volume of trade among the channels, net returns, marketing conduct and constraints associated with coconut marketing in the study area. Multistage sampling procedures involving purposive and random sampling methods were used to select respondents (marketers) for the study. Findings from socioeconomic characteristics showed that female 63.75% are more in coconut marketing. This implies that the enterprise is gender based in the study area. Findings on marketing channels and volume of trade shows that the fruits has three channel through which it reaches the consumer. The first stage is where producer/supplier sells to intermediate who sales to final consumer which recorded the highest volume of trade (43%) among the channels. Findings on net returns showed that net return per Naira invested was 1.77%. The implication of this is that for every one Naira invested in the enterprise, 1.77k was generated as profit. This implies that coconut marketing is profitable in the study area. Findings on marketing conduct shows that size of coconut (61.25%) was a criteria used as purchase strategies from suppliers. Findings on constraints showed that over stayed coconut is the major constraints. Marketing prices of certain food and fruits should be looked into by government and stakeholders and stakeholders should device a means to carry coconut to minimize wastage associated with transport e.t.c were recommended.</em></p> N. O. Ositanwosu B. O. Gbughemobi D. C. Nkamigbo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 305 312 Economic Analysis of Mobile Food Vendors in Nnewi Metropolitan City, Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3505 <p>The study examined the economic analysis of mobile food vendor marketing in Nnewi metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. The study specifically, described the socioeconomic characteristics of mobile food vendors, various mobile food vendors prevalence in the area, profitability of mobile food vending, influence of socioeconomic characteristics on net income of mobile food vending and constraints associated with mobile food vending in the study area. Multistage sampling procedures involving purposive and random sampling methods was used to select respondents (marketers) for the study. Findings from socioeconomic characteristics shows that most of these mobile food uses wheelbarrow, bike, truck and or head to carry their product to sell to their customers. Findings on various mobile food vendors prevalence in the area showed that Abacha vendors had 25.83% which stands to be the highest mobile vending in the study area. Finding on profitability shows that marketers return 76 kobo for every 1 Naira invested in the business, a profitable enterprise. Stakeholders should work together to reduce the hike in transportation to enable these small businesses to thrive and government should formulate a programs to train these vendors to attain to world class vending business in food marketing were recommended.</p> D. C. Nkamigbo A. C. Isibor N. J. Obiekwe S. O. Adejoh Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 313 320 Determinants of Rural Farmers’ Access to Commercial Bank Credit in Enugu State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3506 <p><em>The study analyzed access to commercial bank credit by rural farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Three specific objectives guided the study. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select 80 rural farmers for the study. Primary data were collected with the use of well-structured questionnaire through the aid of trained data collection agents. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Regression and Access Index models were used for data analysis. A greater percentage (46.9%) of the studied farmers was between 20-40 years, 35.8% was between 41 - 60 years, while 17.3% was 60 years and above. Level of education, membership of cooperative societies, farming experience and value of asset held by farmers facilitated access to credit. Also, result shows that high interest rate, inadequate collateral and communication problem between commercial banks and farmers were the major constraints hindering access to credit.</em></p> J. C. Ibe O. O. Osuafor T. C. Okoh R. N. Arua I. I. Umaru Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 321 327 Awareness and Access of Research Output from Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University to Farmers in Awka Metropolis https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3517 <p>The study examined awareness and access of research output from Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University (FANAU) to farmers in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. Multiple stage sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents from residents within and around Awka Metropolis. Primary data were collected using interview schedule and focus group discussion. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The Hypothesis was tested using independent T Test to determine significant differences in the socio-economic characteristics of respondents and their access to research output from FANAU. Results revealed that only 35% of the farmers interviewed were aware of FANAU research output. Out of the 35 farmers that were aware, 66.0% became aware through radio. Only 28% of farmers reported that they have access to research output from FANAU. About 91%of the farmers that were aware of the research output from FANAU, was in the area of crop production. More than 95% of the farmers that had access, expressed difficulty in accessing FANAU research output. Lack of link (&nbsp;<img src="data:image/png;base64,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" alt="">= 3.42) between farmers and researchers was perceived by farmers as the most serious challenge in accessing research output from FANAU. The study established that socio-economic characteristics such as age (p &lt;0.001), educational Level (p &lt;0.001) and farming experience (p &lt;0.001) had significant relationship with access at both 1% and 5% level of significance. The study concluded that only 35% of farmers were aware and 28% had access to research output from FANAU.</p> I. A. Enwelu N. H. Odiegwu Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 328 335 Financial Technology (Fin Tech) Credit Volume and its Implication on Women Cassava Farmers’ Profit in Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3511 <p><em>Access to microcredit by women farmers is challenged by lack of collateral security among others. This impacts negatively on the productivity and profitability of women cassava farmers. Thus, this study examined access to financial technology (fin-tech) credit volume and its implication on profit of women cassava farmers in Anambra State. A Three-stage sampling method was adopted. Five Local Government Areas (LGA) were purposively selected. Three villages were then randomly selected from each LGA, and random sampling was used to select ten 10 women cassava farmers. In all, 150 were sampled using structured questionnaires. Data collected were access to fintech credit and profit of farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Square. Result showed that only (36.10) had access to credit through fin-tech. Majority (47.16%) of the farmers, had access to between 5,000-30,000 Naira, (22.64%) had access to credit range of 31,000-60,000 Naira, (20.75%) had access to between 61,000-100,000 Naira while (9.43%) had access to credit worth 100,000 Naira and above. Farm size, volume of loan accessed through fintech and cost of weeding had positive and significant influence on profit, while cost of transportation had negative and significant influence on profit. The profitability of women cassava farmers was established increased with an increase in the volume of credit access through fintech. The study recommends that farmers’ access to fintech credit be improved through sensitization and provision of required resources.</em></p> J. O. Komolafe O. J. Umeh N. O. Ositanwosu P. C. Chilaka Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 336 340 Effects of Livestock Production on Rural Development in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3516 <p><em>The study assessed the effects of livestock production on rural development in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure involving purposive and random sampling techniques were used in the selection of 150 respondents. Primary data were collected through interview schedule and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequencies, percentages, mean score and factor analysis. Result showed that the major types of livestock enterprises undertaken by the respondents were: poultry production (85.3%), fishery (68.0%), goat keeping (66.0%), cattle rearing (58.0%) and piggery enterprise (53.3%). These enterprises improved the livelihood of respondents through increased income ( ), employment generation ( ) and enhanced availability of meat and egg products ( ). Other benefits were: increased food nutrition/daily protein requirement (85.3%), increased profitability (79.3%), increased soil fertility (78.7%) and supplies of raw materials for industries (76.0%). High cost of livestock feeds, livestock diseases, low access to veterinary services and inadequate extension service are some of the constraints limiting the performance of the farmers. Therefore, the study recommended that farmers should organize themselves into groups in order to share knowledge and experience for the improvement of livestock farming. This will also help them to secure loans from micro and macro credit institutions.</em></p> C. P. Chinenye V. O. Chukwu O. O. Osuafor Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 341 347 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Stiff Dough Produced from Blends of Water Yam and Black Bean Flours https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3518 <p><em>This research aims to make stiff dough from water yam and black turtle bean (Akidi) flours and ascertain the quality attributes. The water yam was peeled, sliced while in water, oven dried at 60℃ for 4 h and milled into flour while the black bean was sorted, divided into two equal parts one part was soaked for 5 h while the other was boiled for10 mins and thereafter oven dried at 65 ℃, dehulled and milled into flour. The flour samples were blended at different ratios of water yam to black turtle bean, 100 % water yam flour (WY) served as control, 90:10 (WB1), 80:20 (WB2), 70:30 (WB3), 60:40 (WB4), 50:50 (WB5), 90:10 (WS1), 80:20 (WS2), 70:30 (WS3), 60:40 (WS4) and 50:50 (WS5). The proximate, anti-nutritional and consumer acceptability were assessed. The nutritional compositions of the product all showed significant differences. The flours' proximate composition revealed the following ranges of results: 1.84 to 5.20% ash, 0.61 to 1.87% crude fat, 0.72 to 2.17% crude fibre, 2.57 to 8.17% moisture, and 71.35 to 81.95% carbohydrate. The antinutritional compositions showed that boiling reduced the phytate and tannin contents to 0.05 mg/100g and 0.06 mg/100g while soaking caused a significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) in the saponin and oxalate contents to 0.06 mg/100g and 0.02 mg/100g respectively. Stiff dough prepared from soaked sample WS1(90:10) had the highest overall acceptability. These findings suggests that water yam/black turtle stiff dough can meet the nutritional demands of the populace. This study provides an alternative way of utilizing water yam and black turtle bean thus preventing post-harvest losses and ensuring eradication of protein energy malnutrition and proper food security.</em></p> N. M. Anene M. U. Eze E. E. Emojorho C. S. Mmuoh C. U. Obiora T. M. Ikegwu Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 349 355 Calcium and Phosphorus Contents of Non-Bioprocessed and Bio-Processed Mucuna pruriens (Egbara) Seed Flour https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3519 <p><em>This study evaluated the effect of non-bioprocessing and bioprocessing on the calcium and phosphorus content of Mucuna pruriens seed flour. The seeds were cleaned, washed, soaked in distilled water (24 h, 48 h and 72 h), cooked (20 min, 40 min, 60 min and 80 min), roasted (10 min, 15 min and 20 min), germinated (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) and fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Calcium and phosphorus contents of the samples were determined. Calcium ranged from 187.10 – 425.68 mg/100 g while phosphorus ranged from 778.00 – 1790 mg/100 g.&nbsp; Germination (24 h) and fermentation (24, 48 and 72 h) significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased calcium while other treatments decreased it. Roasting for 10 min significantly increased phosphorus content while others decreased it. Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and roasting for 10 min are therefore recommended for the improvement in the calcium and phosphorus contents of Mucuna pruriens seed flour respectively.</em></p> C. C. Ezegbe E. S. Ukpong K. S. Okocha E. N. Odoh S. N. Orjiakor O. O. Kolawole Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 356 360 Mineral and Sensory Properties of ‘Àmala’ Produced from Yam and Cassava Flours Flavoured with Ginger Flour https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3520 <p><em>This study assessed the mineral and sensory properties of ‘àmàlà’ produced from yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) flours flavoured with ginger (Zingiber officinale) flour. The three raw materials were individually processed into flour and mixture design generated by the design expert software version 12 was used to formulate a total of 13 runs. The results were compared with two controls; sample 1 (100% yam flour) and sample 2 (100% cassava flour). The samples were evaluated for mineral and sensory properties using standard operating procedures. The results obtained for the mineral analysis showed that the calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron contents ranged from 3.17-93.81 mg/100 g, 3.35-103.77 mg/100 g, 0.61-1.83 mg/100 g and 0.17-10.87 mg/100 g respectively. Sample 13 (55 yam flour: 30 cassava flour: 15 ginger flour) had the highest iron content. Major striking observation revealed that the addition of cassava flour to these flour samples improved the mineral content of these samples as the control, sample 1 (100% yam flour) had very little mineral content when compared to the rest of the samples. For the sensory evaluation of the ‘àmàlà’, sample 10 (50 yam flour: 30 cassava flour: 20 ginger flour) and sample 1 were the most preferred in terms of general acceptability amongst other samples on the 9-point Hedonic scale and of all the minerals analyzed in this work, only the iron content met the requirements for Recommended Dietary Allowance of iron for men and postmenopausal women.</em></p> A. T. Victor-Aduloju C. G. Nwabude I. T. Ubaka Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 361 366 Harnessing the Potential of Plant-Based Nutrition for Dietary Health in Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3521 <p><em>The role of plant-based nutrition for dietary health in Nigeria has been recognized. The nutritional challenges both globally and in Nigeria are increasing while the world is becoming more aware of the impact of malnutrition and global efforts are increasingly concentrating on addressing malnutrition and increasing food security. Diets affect nutrition and health outcomes and thus have social, economic, and environmental impacts. Nutraceuticals are food or food-derived products with additional characteristics to minimize the occurrence and prevention of certain chronic diseases. They include dietary fibre, probiotics, prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, spices, fruits, and vegetables that have proven to have potential health benefits. The link between plant-based nutrition and overall health and well-being is already gaining momentum as a diet rich in plant-based foods and with fewer animal-source foods confers both improved health and environmental benefits. At the same time, an increased intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains has been associated with a lower incidence of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. This study advocates for leveraging plant-based nutrition in Nigeria to address health and nutrition challenges. Recommendations include targeted education and supportive policies for widespread adoption, fostering improved public health.</em></p> L. A. Orumwense T. O. Olarewaju F. Awe A. S. Ewolor O. G. Oloba Y. O. Adesina Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 367 374 Comparative Studies on the Estimated Glycemic Indices/ Loads of Fufu-Like Products from Coconut and Maize Chaffs https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3522 <p><em>Comparative studies of the estimated glycemic indices/ loads of fufu-like products made with coconut and maize chaffs were studied. Coconut chaff and maize chaff (100g each) were mixed separately with different quantities (2g, 5g and 10g) of each of the binders (psyllium husk and gelatin) and 10ml of water. The paste was stirred in a cooking pot to form dough at 100<sup>0</sup>C for 5 minutes. It was allowed to cool and packaged in transparent polyethylene bag, Hydrolysis indices, glycemic indices and glycemic loads of the fufu-like products were determined using standard methods. Hydrolysis index of the fufu-like products made from coconut chaff were found in the range of 0.41% to 0.86% while products made from maize chaff ranged from 1.08% to 6.32%. Estimated glycemic indices of the fufu-like products made from coconut chaff ranged from 39.93% to 40.18% while that of maize chaff ranged from 40.30% to 43.18%. The glycemic loads of the fufu-like product made from coconut chaff ranged from 1.78 to 4.42 (100g serving) while products made from maize chaff ranged from 6.32 to 10.34 (100g serving). The study revealed that all the fufu like products had low glycemic indices and glycemic loads except fufu-like products made with maize chaff that fell under medium range of glycemic load classifications. Fufu-like product made from coconut chaff with 10g psyllium husk yielded lowest glycemic index and glycemic load which could be used as a functional food.</em></p> J. C. Ndulaka N. E. Obasi G. I. Onwuka Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 375 381 Effect of Different Preprocessing Methods on the Proximate Composition of Bottled Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) Milk Varieties https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3523 <p><em>This study was carried out to observe the proximate composition of tigernut milk extract from the yellow and brown varieties of tigernut. The tigernut tubers were subjected to different preprocessing operations (boiling, malting, and soaking) before extraction. The proximate composition of the tigernut tubers and drinks were determined. The result showed that the yellow variety recorded high moisture content (39.16%) compared to the brown variety which recorded (9.17%). Values obtained for the tigernut tubers and tigernut milk were significantly different except crude fibre content (0.00%) which recorded no trace of fibre in the extract. The moisture content of the tigernut milk slightly increased after sterilization except for the malted yellow sample, there was a decrease in the carbohydrate, crude fibre, and fat contents after sterilization. However, the protein, ash and fat content of the malted brown variety were not affected. There were significant differences p&lt;0.05 between the processing methods and the varieties. The study showed that there was varietal difference in the nutrient composition of tigernut tuber and also the effect of processing and sterilization on tigernut milk. This study highlights the need to increase utilization of tigernut for commercialization in Nigeria and beyond.</em></p> C. Okorie G. I. Onwuka N. E. Obasi Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 382 388 Effects of Local Stabilizers (Achi, Ofor, And Cocoyam) on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Yoghurt https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3524 <p><em>This study was conducted to evaluate the use of local soup thickeners known as plant-based stabilizer to produce yoghurt and determine their effects on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of yoghurt. Reconstituted powdered cow milk was homogenized, pasteurized at 95°C for 5 min, cooled to 45˚C and inoculated with a direct-vat-set (DVS) yoghurt starter culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus for 12 h and cooled at 5˚C. Achi and Ofor seeds were sorted, cleaned, soaked (6 h), toasted, dehulled, dehydrated, milled and sieved to obtain their respective flours. Cocoyam were sorted, peeled, washed, sliced, dehydrated, milled, and sieved to obtain cocoyam flour. These flours were incorporated at 10% into yoghurt samples as stabilizers. The yoghurt samples were subjected to proximate, functional and microbial, and organoleptic evaluation. Proximate analysis revealed significant differences (p &lt;0.05) in carbohydrate, moisture, protein, fat, and ash content among different yogurt samples. Functional properties assessment indicated that the yogurt containing 100% Cocoyam flour displayed the lowest water release. Microbiological evaluation recorded varying total viable bacterial counts (TVC) across samples, with the lowest count observed in yogurt containing 0.33% Cocoyam and 0.67% Ofor. Notably, coliforms were absent in all samples. Overall, the findings suggested the potential of local plant-based soup thickeners as effective stabilizers in yogurt production, enhancing its physicochemical and functional attributes. The study highlights the feasibility of incorporating these indigenous hydrocolloids into yogurt formulation for improved product quality and possibly broader market appeal.</em></p> C. U. Obiora M. G. Eze I. T. Ubaka E. J. Dunuson V. I. Meheobi S. N. Orjiakor Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 389 394 Effect of Controlled Fermentation on Proximate Composition of Cocoa Bean https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3525 <p><em>The source of microorganisms used during fermentation is very important to the output of the fermentation process. The use of naturally predominant species from a fermentation process gives rise to improved fermentation than the use of microorganisms from culture collections. Natural and controlled fermentation of the cocoa bean inoculated with defined starter consortia of Acetobacter pasteurianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum was done. Cocoa fermentation was carried out under two experimental conditions; beans naturally fermented with micro flora naturally present on the substrate and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing defined starters from a batch of previously fermented cocoa beans at different time course. The dynamics in microbial population and time course were determined by microbial count method. The chemical content of naturally fermented and controlled fermented cocoa beans were determined through proximate analysis respectively. The dynamics in microbial composition showed that the yeast, acetic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria populations increased slowly and reached maximum of 6.1 x 10<sup>7</sup>, 4.4x 107 and 5.4x 10<sup>7</sup>cfu\ml respectively, at days 3-4 for the natural fermentation, while they increased abruptly and reached maximum of 7.2x 10<sup>7</sup>, 6.0x 10<sup>7 </sup>and 6.1x 10<sup>7</sup>cfu\ml respectively at day 2-3 for the controlled fermentation. Starter culture addition resulted in significant (P&lt;0.05) decreases in ash (7.10%-4.50%), crude fiber (7.90-6.20%), crude protein (7.70-6.52%) content of the cocoa beans during natural and controlled fermentations, while carbohydrate and fat content increased from (62.00 - 69.70%) and (6.90 -7.70%) &nbsp;with starter addition. Thus, the fermentation of cocoa beans with starter culture addition produced fermented beans with higher natural quality and it potentially reduced the fermentation time to 3 days, as against 6-7 days recorded in natural fermentation.</em></p> C. Q. Igwilo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 395 403 Evaluation of the Diverse Nutrients of Lasianthera africana Leaf https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3526 <p><em>A proximate analysis was conducted&nbsp; to evaluate the minerals, vitamins and macro-food molecules of endemic Lasianthera africana leaves in the natural forest of&nbsp; Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The results showed relatively low ash (6.40), crude protein (13.83%) and moisture content (9.14%) but high crude fibre (5.37%), fat (2.61%), carbohydrate (62.7%) and Energy Value (329.5k/cal).These suggested that it is an energy giving food source&nbsp; even though its relatively low protein but high in calcium (143.7mg) and iron (5.94), as well as Vitamins A(294.2±0.1ug/100g) and&nbsp; C (10.52±0.01mg/100g). The study indicates that leaves of this forest shrub constitutes a good source of carbohydrate, protein, minerals and vitamins that could augment as a source of food condiment for the teeming population particularly in the rural communities, with significant economic and nutritional challenges</em></p> P. O. Odey A. E. Egwunatum J. A. Ogbodo M. A. Adeyemi Onyekachi Chukwu H. Okolie C. R. Ike O. C. Nsofor S. E. Nwachukwu Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 404 408 An Overview of Thermal and Non-Thermal Food Processing and Preservation Methods https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3527 <p><em>Thermal food processing technology had been in existence since the creation of human but recently industries are beginning to adopt the use of non-thermal food processing technology due to the challenges associated with the former like high energy consumption, degradation of food nutritive contents and high operational cost. Basically, food processing techniques are used to pasteurize, preserve taste, retain or improve nutrient contents and increase shelf life of food on storage. However, there is an increased awareness for the consumption safe and high nutritional food which has led to consumers’ demand for processed food to retain natural flavour, pigment, safe, high nutritive value with an extended shelf life long enough for sales and home storage before consumption.&nbsp; These demands led to the continuous advancement in food processing industry to design techniques capable of retaining nutritive quality and organoleptic properties of food requiring little or no heat energy to process. In addition to the known novel processing methods like freeging, freeze-drying, ohmic heating and microwave, there is an increasing interest in developing other novel methods to achieve better food sterilization and preservation which includes high hydrostatic pressure process (HHP), pulsed electric field (PEF), cold plasma technology (CP). However, the later can lead to oxidation of lipids and loss of colour and flavour based on time of exposure. Therefore, this short review presents an overview of thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with the underlining principles, uses and limitations of few of them.</em></p> R. A. Alawode A. A. Olaniyi M. B. Olaniyi Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 409 415 Production and Evaluation of Flakes from Rice (Oryza sativa) and Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Flour Blends https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3528 <p><em>This study evaluated breakfast flaked samples produced from rice and kidney bean flour blends. The rice grains were sorted, winnowed, washed, soaked, drained, dried, milled, and sieved, whereas, the kidney bean seeds were sorted, cleaned, boiled, drained, dehulled, washed, dried, milled, and sieved. The rice and kidney bean flours were blended in the ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80 and 10:90 of rice and kidney bean. The blended flours were weighed, mixed, heated, aged, cut, toasted, cooled and packaged to obtain the flaked samples. The three best samples from the sensory evaluation of breakfast flake samples (60:40, 30:70, 10:90) were analysed for proximate composition using standard methods. The data obtained were statistically analysed using SPSS and means were separated at 0.05 level of significance. The sensory properties of the breakfast flake samples ranged from 6.07 to 7.53 for colour, 5.67 to 7.80 for taste, 6.20 to 7.13 for texture, 6.20 to 7.00 for flavour and 5.27 to 6.87 for overall acceptability. The breakfast flake samples produced were all acceptable, although sample A (60:40) was preferred most in terms of overall acceptability scores of 6.87±0.73. The results of the proximate composition of the samples showed that moisture ranged from 3.35 to 11.77%, protein 13.95 to 20.61%, ash 1.99 to 3.25%, fibre 1.66 to 4.67%, lipid 6.01 to 6.08% and carbohydrate 53.69 to 69.91%, respectively. It was observed, therefore, that the blends of the rice and kidney bean flour in breakfast flakes making should not exceed 50% of kidney bean flour substitution.</em></p> L. C. Nwakunite A. O. Oyarebu C. C. Ezegbe Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 416 422 Roles of some Innovative Non-Thermal Processing Techniques on Food Quality and Safety https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/faic/article/view/3529 <p><em>New food processing methodologies have emerged in response to consumers' increasing demand for food products that are not only safe, delicious and minimally processed but also possess an extended shelf-life with consistent quality. The evolving lifestyle trends, characterized by a heightened interest in nutritionally-rich foods, bioactive compounds and overall sensory quality, have presented significant challenges to the food processing industry, driving the need for the development of novel and innovative food processing techniques. Conventional methods like pasteurization and commercial sterilization have long been used in the food industry for their efficacy in preserving foods through the eradication of harmful microorganisms and enzymes. However, the elevated temperatures generated by these methods can often lead to detrimental effects on food constituents, resulting in compromised organoleptic quality and diminished nutritional value. Hence, the need for novel non-thermal food processing techniques which can safeguard the overall quality attribute of food products with an extended shelf-life while ensuring total food safety becomes necessary. These innovative techniques include high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, cold plasma treatment, ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation stand out among others, thus, exerting considerable influence on consumer health and representing major advancements in food processing. This review intends to furnish essential insights into various novel non-thermal food processing techniques, elucidating their preservative mechanisms, efficacy and suitability across diverse food categories and their impact on the food safety.</em></p> M. B. Olaniyi A. A. Olaniyi R. A. Alawode P. O. Ogunbamowo Copyright (c) 2024 e-Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture International Conference 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 423 428