Soil Fertility Status of Millet and Sorghum Farms in Wudil, Kano State Nigeria and the Agronomic Implications
Keywords:Soil fertility, cropping system, Sudan savannah
The aim of the research was to evaluate soil fertility status of millet and sorghum farms in Wudil, Kano State Nigeria in order to advise the farmers for sustainable millet and sorghum productions. A total of 30 composite soil samples were collected at depth 0-15 cm (fifteen from each of millet and sorghum farms). Structured questionnaires were also administered to record the cultural and management practices of the farmers. The soil samples were analyzed for some chemical properties using standard laboratory procedures. Results of questionnaires indicated that majority of millet and sorghum farmers in the study area are individual own farms with sizes less than half a hectare and practices mixed cropping with a grossly low input system. The results of soil properties shows that the pH of the millet farms in Wudil ranged from 5.2-6.11 (mean 5.78) which is considered to be moderately to slightly acidic while that of the sorghum farms is slightly acidic with a pH range of 5.83- 6.68 (mean 6.186). It was also found that the exchangeable acidity values were low 0.25 and 0.21 for the millet and sorghum farms respectively, indicating a low buffering capacity. The organic carbon and organic matter for both the millet and sorghum farms were low (0.1-0.958 and 0.172-1.651; 0.18-0.858 and 0.31-1.479 with mean values of 0.543 and 0.936, and 0.532 and 0.917 respectively). The total N was low for both millet and sorghum farms which ranged between 0.03-0.14 and 0.035-0.14 with mean of 0.061% and 0.067% respectively. The results of available P in the study area indicate medium in both millet and sorghum farms ranges from 8.5-22.73 and 6.818-22.48 with a mean of 11.75 and 12.90 respectively. The results of exchangeable bases (Ca, Na, Mg and K) were low ranges from 0.99-1.89, 0.07-0.211, 0.38-1.45; and 0.255-0.96 with mean values of 1.259, 0.135, 0.865 and 0.449 respectively, thus recommends application of both organic and inorganic fertilizers.