Assessment of Soil Texture Effect on Soil Erosion in Northern Sudan Savannah Alfisol of Nigeria
Keywords:Texture, soil loss, erosion, slope
The aim of this study is to assess if silt has a potential effect on the erosion of the soils of Hadejia/Jamaare river basin, along river Kano in Sudan savannah zone, Kano, Nigeria. The research area was split into five slopes using digital elevation model (DEM) map, and in each slope, ten disturbed soil samples were collected at the depth of 0-15 and 15-30cm and replicated ten times in a randomised complete block design (RCBD). Erosion and texture were evaluated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and particle size distribution hydrometer method respectively. Results indicated that the percentage silt fraction of the surface soil (0-15cm) was found to have no statistically significant variability among treatments and within blocks between replications (P>0.05). Middle slope recorded the highest silt fraction (33%) compared to valley (26 %). USLE findings however, revealed that middle slope has the highest record of potential soil loss (0.012 t/ha/yr) compared to the lowest slope (0.0013t/h/yr) with no statistically significant variability difference among treatments and within blocks between replications (P>0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that percentage silt and potential soil loss were positively correlated (0.26) and (R2 = 0.056). Overall, this study indicated that silt percentage is an increasing function of soil erosion; hence, rate of soil loss will increase at high silt percentage and that soils that contain high proportion of silt and fine sand are erodible and easily detached and carried away by either wind or water. For this reason, erosion control and management tools such as soil and water conservation praxes are strongly recommended to control the menace.