Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-02-28T22:20:07+01:00 Dr. Kenneth Gerald Ngwoke Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR)</em>, a peer-reviewed, open access journal published every two months with six issues in a year. It is a biomedical publication, which provides both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. JCBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that stimulates further investigation of potentially relevant findings as well as studies with negative findings. JCBR publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor.</p> Safety assessment of Spondias purpurea aqueous leaf extract (anacardiaceae): Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in wistar rats 2023-01-29T12:07:23+01:00 Jonah Oluwaiye Aishatu Shehu Ibrahim Muazzamu Aliyu Helen Ochuko Kwanashie Sherifat Bola Anafi Abubakar Ibrahim <p>This study aimed to assess the toxicological profile of aqueous leaf extract of <em>S. purpurea</em> (ALES) in Wistar rats. ALES was subjected to acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies which were conducted according to Lorke’s and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 408 guidelines respectively. The acute toxicity study was carried out in two phases within 48 hours. Sub-chronic (90 days) toxicity studies were conducted on 4 groups of rats each. The first group received 1mL/kg distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 received ALES 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids/triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, and cardiac glycosides. The oral median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of the extract in rats was established to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Sub-chronic administration of ALES did not produce significant changes in body weights and relative organ weights of treated rats. Hematology results between control and treated groups for a 90-day period of administration of ALES were comparable, however there was a significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) increase in differential white blood cell at highest dose. Biochemical result, revealed a non-significant mean variations in levels of renal and hepatic parameters between the treated groups and their corresponding controls. However, there was a significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) dose dependent decrease in level of potassium and glucose for treated groups compared their respective control, also a non-dose dependent decrease in ALP at 500 mg/kg ALES group. Lipid parameters examined also showed a dose dependent decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL level, however the decrease was significant for triglyceride at 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg treatment group compared to control. Additionally, in comparison to control a non-significant increase in HDL level was observed for treatment groups. The Histological result showed slight alterations in brain, liver, kidney, lungs and uterus intensified with an increase in the doses of the extracts administered. These findings suggest that <em>Spondias purpurea</em> leaf extract is relatively safe on acute administration. However, long term administration of higher doses could result in mild toxic responses. Therefore, caution should be taken in long term administration of the extract.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research Effect of avocado seed extract on lipid profile and atherogenic index in cyclosporine-treated rats 2023-02-15T22:05:07+01:00 Leye J Babatola Adeniyi Adebayo Joseph Ifijeh Ganiyu Oboh <p>Hypertension is a global health issue because of its high prevalence and its association with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This work evaluated the anti-dyslipidemic potential of aqueous extract of avocado seed (APE) (50 – 100 mg/kg) in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-five rats were used for this work and divided into five groups of 5 rats each (n= 5). Group 1 (normal control), group 2 (cyclosporine alone), group 3 (cyclosporine + 5 mg of lisinopril), group 4 and 5 (cyclosporine + 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg b.wt of extract respectively). Treatments lasted for 7 days and the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Plasma samples from the rats were used for lipid profile analysis such as; total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein. The results showed significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) increase in triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol (TCH), as well as significant (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) decrease in HDL and atherogenic index in cyclosporine only treated rats compared with the normal control group. However, treatment with aqueous extract of avocado seed (APE) caused a significant decrease in TG, LDL, and total cholesterol, with concomitant increase in HDL concentration and atherogenic index in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study suggest that avocado seed extract has anti-dyslipidemic potential which could be useful in the management of hypertension and other diseases arising from dyslipidemia.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research Pharmacognostic studies of Pavonia senegalensis (cav.) Liestner (malvaceae) leaf 2023-02-18T21:28:46+01:00 Umar Faruk Shehu Abdulmumin Zayd Abubakar Garba Ibrahim <p><em>Pavonia senegalensis</em> (Cav.) Liestner (Malvaceae) is a plant used in African Traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacognostic studies and HPLC fingerprinting on the leaves of <em>P. senegalensis</em> for standardization purposes. Macroscopic, organoleptic, microscopic and physico-chemical evaluation were carried out on the leaf of the plant. The diagnostic microscopic features of the leaf include anomocytic stomata, unicellular covering stellate trichomes, polygonal epidermal cells with beaded anticlinal walls. The powdered leaves under light microscope showed the presence of numerous unicellular covering trichomes and clusters of rosette calcium oxalate crystals with groups of epidermal and parenchyma cells. The physico-chemical characteristics determined are total ash 10.53 %, acid-insoluble ash 4.83 %, moisture content 7.26 %, water-soluble and alcohol soluble-extractive 15.15 and 12.25 % respectively. The presence of heavy metals determined in the leaves of <em>P. senegalensis</em> were zinc and lead which were 0.24 and 4.00 mgkg<sup>-1 </sup>respectively while cadmium, arsenic and mercury were not detected. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanol leaf extract of <em>P. senegalensis</em> showed the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and steroids/triterpenes (saponins). The HPLC fingerprints of the aqueous ethanol leaf extract determined under optimized conditions showed 5 peaks with retention times 1.26, 1.56, 2.18, 3.10 and 4.34 mins. The result of this study can be used to evaluate any sample or products labelled as <em>Pavonia senegalensis.</em></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research Potentials medicinal plants used in the treatment of Covid-19 symptoms 2023-02-02T22:42:37+01:00 Saifullahi Umar Anas Abba <p> Plants still form the bases of traditional medicine system and that plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare for over 80% of the world population. An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted to document the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of COVID-19 symptoms in the Northern-Senatorial district of Kano. Information was generated from 26- traditional medicine practitioners, 50 herb sellers and 20-elderly people. The information collected were divided based on the symptoms treated by the medicinal plants. A total of 36-plant species belonging to 22 families were reported to be used in the treatment of COVID-19 symptoms. Plants from Poaceae, Myrtaceae Liliaceae, Lamiaceae and Combretaceae family had the highest number of species being used in the symptoms treatment. Leaves were reported to be the most frequent plant part used followed by bark, corn, bulb, whole plant and rhizomes. The survey revealed that the most prominent method of preparation used are decoction and infusion. Traditional medicine encourage prevention of symptoms and enhanced self-immunity against host of infections, hence the survey had documented information on medicinal plants, method of their prepations by the native people, traditional practitioners, herbalist of North-Senatorial district Kano, for treatment of COVID-19 symptoms.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research Effect of leaf extract and fractions of Solanum anomalum on oxidative stress markers, kidney function indices and histology of alloxan-induced diabetic rats 2023-01-31T21:45:18+01:00 Oyepata Joseph Judde Okokon <p>In ethnomedicine, the leaf of <em>S. anomalum</em> is used to treat a variety of illnesses, including diabetes. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of <em>S. anomalum</em> leaf extract and fractions on the kidney function indices, renal histology, and indicators of oxidative stress in rats with diabetes caused by alloxan. Antioxidative stress and renoprotective potentials of leaf extract (70-210 mg/kg) and fractions (140 mg/kg) were assessed by determining oxidative stress markers levels, kidney function parameters and histopathology of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The levels of oxidative stress indicators (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) in the kidney were significantly increased by the leaf extract and fractions (p&lt;0.05–0.001), while the level of MDA was lowered in the treated diabetic rats. The high serum levels of urea and creatinine in diabetic rats were significantly (p&lt;0.05–0.001) reduced by the leaf fractions, whereas the levels of electrolytes were not significantly decreased . The kidney histology of the treated diabetic rats either showed no pathological abnormalities or a considerable reduction in pathological features. The findings suggest the antioxidative stress and nephroprotective capabilities of <em>Solanum anomalum</em> leaf extract and fractions, which may be a result of the antioxidant activities of their phytochemical constituents</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research