Journal of Current Biomedical Research <p><em>Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR)</em>, a peer-reviewed, open access journal published every two months with six issues in a year. It is a biomedical publication, which provides both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. JCBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that stimulates further investigation of potentially relevant findings as well as studies with negative findings. JCBR publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor.</p> <p> </p> Nnamdi Azikiwe University en-US Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2659-0352 Bacterial contamination of mobile phones and their use among healthcare workers in critical care units at a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern Nigeria <p>Mobile phones are essential devices for communication. However, it is implicated in transmission of microorganisms. Critically ill patients have high risk of infection from pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. This study was conducted among healthcare workers in critical care units at a tertiary hospital, to assess their MP use and determine their rate of microbial contamination.</p> <p>A point prevalence survey was conducted among healthcare workers in critical care areas, namely operating theatre, intensive care and dialysis units. Data was collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics and mobile phone use habits.Moistened sterile swabs were used to swab MPs, inserted in Amie’s transport media and processed by standard microbiological methods. Data was analysed with SPSS version 23</p> <p>Overall, 62 HCWs, Nurses 31(50%), Doctors 16 (25.8%) and Health Assistants 15 (24.2%) were recruited from operation theatres 36 (58.1%), intensive care 19 (30.6%) and dialysis 7 (11.3%) units. Most respondents 58 (93.5%) believe MP is an important work tool, 22(35.5%) handle MPs with gloved hands and 33(53.2%) had never disinfected their MPs. Overall, 47(75.8%) MPs were contaminated with microorganisms namely,<em>Coagulase negative staphylococcus</em> 48(77.4%),<em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>9(14.6%),Gram negative bacteria 4(6.5%) and fungi 1(1.6%),Bivariate analysis of demographic characteristics and MP use habits with bacterial contamination were not statistically significant.</p> <p>The microbial contamination rate of mobile phones belonging to healthcare workers who work in critical care units at this facility was high. There is need fortraining on safe mobile phone use to reduce risk of infection to the critically ill patient.</p> Joan Ejembi Olanrewaju Jimoh Mukhtar Muhammed Abdulaziz Medinat Ronke Suleiman Helen Halima Chibbs Joy Olufunke Daniel Adebola Tolulope Olayinka Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1571 1585 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.5 Comparative antioxidant activity of selected plants possessing characteristic colours <p>A wide variety of plants with economic values are rich in natural colours. These coloured plants contain phytochemicals that are believed to have many pharmacological &nbsp;activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this study, five plants with known characteristic colours in any of their parts were selected for comparison of their anti-oxidant potentials. Rhizomes of turmeric, &nbsp;tubers of beetroot, leaves of star cucumber, barks of camwood, and flowers of hibiscus were collected and carefully dried, powdered, extracted and subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies, as well as <em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;antioxidant assessments using FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities protocols. The best performing coloured extract (turmeric) was thereafter subjected to <em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;anti-oxidant studies employing catalase and lipid peroxidase (MDA) protocols and using jackfruit concentrate in various proportions as vehicle for oral delivery. The phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of various valuable secondary and primary metabolites, including alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, and proteins. The antioxidant activity/reactive oxygen scavenging abilities comparison of plant extracts showed that turmeric on the overall, exhibited the best scavenging activity. The admixture of the jackfruit concentrate and turmeric extract of 8:2 gave the best anti-oxidant performance which is comparable to the positive control (ascorbic acid). Significantly, the jackfruit concentrate used as vehicle, gave very promising <em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;anti-oxidant activity. Invariably, an 8 : 2 admixture of jackfruit concentrate and turmeric extract will serve as a promising extemporaneous nutraceutical for &nbsp;reactive oxygen scavenging.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Perpetua Chinonyelum Ejezie Calistus Nwakile Charity Chinasa Ezea Ogechukwu Calista Dozie-Nwakile Henrietta Ifeyiniwa Obi Ifeanyi Justin Okeke Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1516 1525 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.1 Methanol leaf extract of Cusonea aborea Hochst (Araliaceae) possesses anticonvulsant activity in laboratory animals <p><em>Cusonea aborea</em> is used in the treatment of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of methanol leaf extract of the plant in experimental animals.<strong> </strong>Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies were conducted. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract at doses of 75, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg was evaluated in chicks (using maximal electroshock test) and mice (using pentylenetetrazole, 4-aminopyridine, strychnine, picrotoxin and isoniazid-induced) seizures models. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, streroids, anthraquinones and triterpines. Intraperitoneal median lethal dose was estimated to be 2000 and 3800 mg/kg in mice and chicks respectively. The extract offered 40 % protection at 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg against maximal electroshock test. Protection of 50 and 33.33 % was offered at 75 and 150 mg/kg respectively against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. At 300 mg/kg, the extract confered 66.67 % protection and significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) increased the onet of seizures in 4-aminopyridine test. Protection of 83.33 % and significant increase (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) in the onset of seizure was seen at 300 mg/kg in strychnine-induced seizures. There was significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) increase in the onset of seizures at 300 mg/kg against picritoxin-induced seizures. No protection was offered by the extract against isoniazid-induced seizures at all of the tested doses. The findings revealed that the methanol leaf extract of C<em>usonea aborea</em> possesses anticonvulsant activity and this may provide scientific basis for the use of the plant in the treatment of epilepsy.</p> Adamu Shuaibu Bello Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1526 1541 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.2 Prevalence and sensitivity of Candida albicans to fluconazole and nystatin <p>Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a fungal infection of the female lower genital tract comprising the vulva and the vagina. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) amongst female undergraduate students in a Nigerian university and also to evaluate the susceptibility profile of the organism. Validated questionnaires were used to collect demographic information of consenting study participants and to test the participants’ level of knowledge and perception of VVC among female undergraduates. <em>Candida </em>isolates were identified using a germ tube test and Chromogenic <em>Candida </em>differential agar. <em>Candida </em>isolates were then subjected to a susceptibility test using antifungal discs. The result revealed that 120 participants were interviewed but 105 participants gave their consent. Yeasts were detected in 89 (84.76%) by culture. <em>Candida albicans </em>79(88.76%) was the most common species, followed by<em> Candida glabrata </em>9 (10.12%), and <em>Candida krusei</em> (1.12%). Susceptibility test showed that the isolates were majorly resistant to fluconazole and nystatin. It was seen that there was high prevalence of VVC despite good knowledge and average perception of the infection. <em>Candida albicans </em>was predominant in the study. Based on assessment, both fluconazole and nystatin were not exactly the most effective drug/antifungal drug of choice for therapy. The result of this study reveals that there is high prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst female students in a Nigerian university and the isolates were largely resistant to fluconazole and nystatin.</p> Chidimma Ruth Chukwunwejim Nonye Treasure Ujam Uchenna Eze Raymond Ogbonna Offiah Chinenye Henrietta Nedum Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1586 1597 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.6 Assessment of HIV p24 antibody response in HIV discordant couples in Anambra state, Nigeria. <p>The current management approach of HIV/AIDS is not associated with curative potential via the HAART regimen, thus necessitating alternative treatment approaches. Current vaccine target options have limited protective efficacy and thus create the need for the identification of better and more reactive immunogenic HIV epitopes. Our study therefore aims to assess the formation of naturally occurring HIV-specific p24 antibodies among HIV heterosexual serodiscordant couples.</p> <p>This study was carried out in two hospitals, all of which can manage HIV-positive clients and also offer counselling and case management services. After the issuance of the ethical approval, a total of 64 participants were selected for the ELISA to detect HIV-specific antibodies for p24 antibodies. R version 4.3.2 was utilized for the analysis.</p> <p>The mean age of participants recruited stood at 38 years with an equal number of males and females, since all participants were HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Thus, the antigen-antibody ELISA results indicated that IgM and IgG3 predominantly reacted with p24 (29.7% and 25% of samples testing positive). Further binomial regression analysis identified no predictors for the formation of HIV-specific p24 antibody immune response. However, it was established that the development of this antibody in HIV-seronegative partners was not dependent on their partners, suggesting the potential benefit of incorporating HIV p24 antigenic epitopes in vaccine development.</p> <p>This study therefore provides substantive evidence for the natural development of antibodies to other proteins of the HIV molecule beyond the HIV Envelope region that has been consistently targeted in previous studies. Thus, future studies need to explore the protective efficacy of these antibodies.</p> Uchenna Ogwaluonye George Chukwuma Chinelo Ezejiegu Ejike Onah Ikenna Anagboso Obiamaka Ezeome Chidimma Omeni Godwin Nchinda Chalres Esimone Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1561 1570 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.4 Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Platostoma africanum (P. Beauv) leaf in mice <p>In Nigeria, traditional medicinal plants are often use to relieve pain and inflammation. Traditional healers in Nigeria folk medicine use herbs like <em>P. africanum (P.beauv)</em> to relieve pain and inflammation. The current work sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol crude extract and fractions of <em>P. africanum</em> aerial part in animal models.</p> <p>Extraction was accomplished through successive maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: methanol, n-hexane, and butanol. Following extraction, the crude extract and fractions were tested for central analgesic activity using the tail immersion test. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested using carrageenan induced paw edema. The extract and fractions were tested at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dosages. The positive control groups received pentazocine 10 mg/kg for tail immersion and diclofenac potassium 10 mg/kg for paw edema testing, whereas the negative control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg). All treatments were given orally.</p> <ol> <li><em> africanum</em>fractions demonstrated statistically significant antinociceptive efficacy in both chemical-induced peripheral and thermal-induced central pain (p &lt; 0.001). The maximum dose of the hexane fraction (400 mg/kg) in 90 minutes produced the highest analgesic effects. The extract also had a statistically significant (p &lt; 0.001) effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest dose of butanol (400 mg/kg) in 240 minutes inhibited edema most effectively.</li> </ol> <p>In general, the results of the current investigation revealed that the extract possessed strong analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and future research is needed to identify the components responsible.</p> Felix keneolisa Asogwa Kenneth Okolo Raymond Ogbonna Offiah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 4 2, March-April 1542 1560 10.54117/jcbr.v4i2.3