Journal of Current Biomedical Research https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr <p><em>Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR)</em>, a peer-reviewed, open access journal published every two months with six issues in a year. It is a biomedical publication, which provides both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. JCBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that stimulates further investigation of potentially relevant findings as well as studies with negative findings. JCBR publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor.</p> Nnamdi Azikiwe University en-US Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2659-0352 Evaluation of Inhibitory Activities of Two Common Vegetables (Heinsia crinata and Lasianthera africana) on Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase of Rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1264 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Heinsia crinata </em>(Afzel.) G. Taylor (Rubiaceae) and <em>Lasianthera africana</em>. P.Beav (Stemonuraceae), which are common vegetables employed in the preparation of soups by the Ibibios and also used as medicine traditionally to treat variousdiseases including diabetes, were investigated for effect on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes. <em>H. crinata</em>(450, 900, and 1350 mg/kg) and <em>L. africana</em> (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg) leaves extracts were evaluated for their effects on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes <em>in vivo</em> using starch, sucrose and maltose as substrates. Acarbose was used as reference drug. The leaf extracts caused significant (p&lt;0.05) and non dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose levels of treated rats with the various substrates used. The results suggest that the leaf extracts of these vegetables have the potentials to inhibit alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes in rats.</p> Ebong Nwakaego Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 404 414 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.1 Mutations in the Quinolones Resistance Determining Regions of gyrA in Nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1214 <div> <p class="Default"><span lang="EN-US">In Nigeria, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Salmonella typhi </em>are common causes of human infections and are also recognized as pathogens of public health significance. This study therefore, sought to determine the incidence and extent of fluoroquinolones resistance of <em>S. typhi </em>and <em>S. aureus </em>isolated from patients in Nigerian Defence Academy Hospital. A total of 60 samples obtained from patients with request for stool microscopy, culture and sensitivity, wound swabs, indoor air of surgical wards and swabbing of working benches were analyzed for the presence of <em>S. aureus </em>and <em>S. typhi</em>. The bacterial isolates were then subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of <em>S. typhi </em>revealed that some of the isolates were resistant to two or more fluoroquinolones namely: ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin. <em>S. aureus</em> on the other hand, also showed resistance to fluoroquinolones. The isolates that showed resistance to more fluoroquinolones were taken for molecular analysis. The genomic DNA was extracted and amplified using specific primer for <em>gyrA</em> by PCR, visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis and then sequenced. The amplicon sizes were 251bp respectively for each of the isolates. The detection of resistant pattern </span><span lang="EN-US">responsible for fluoroquinolones resistance showed that mutation had occurred. Mutation in nucleotide sequence was detected in <em>gyrA</em> gene of the fluoroquinolone resistant strains.</span></p> </div> Oyong Imelda Ada Nkechi Egbe Gabriel Brian onwumere Yusuf Rabe Ugochukwu Ozojiorfor Abba Umar Hassan Yusuf Muhammad Sanyinna Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 415 422 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.2 Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors In The Use Of Biomass Fuels In Enugu State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1177 <p>Biomass fuels are used by a large proportion of households in most developing countries, including Nigeria, because they are readily available or relatively inexpensive. The purpose of this study was to determine how socioeconomic factors influence the use of biomass cooking fuels in Nigeria's Enugu State. The survey was cross-sectional, and multistage sampling was used. The samples included 502 respondents from 232 households in 6 of Enugu State's 17 Local Government Areas. The sample size was calculated using Fisher's formula. A structured questionnaire was distributed to the respondents, and observations were made. To arrive at results, data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. According to the study, 94% of respondents use biomass fuels, with 73% using unprocessed wood. Only 6% of them use fossil fuels. Ninety-one percent (91%) of households earn less than N61,000 per month on average, with only about 1% earning more than N90,000 per month. It was also discovered that 88% of respondents had no more than a secondary school education, and 75% lived in rural areas. This study found a high level of poverty and a low level of education among the study population in Enugu State, which translates to a high use of biomass fuels, particularly unprocessed wood (firewood). The study's findings confirm that socioeconomic factors such as household income level, educational status, and so on influence greater use of biomass fuels when they are readily available and at little or no cost to the people.</p> Isaiah Abonyi Chinasa O. A. Amadi Peter M. Eze Obasi K. Ojo Ede A. Okorie Eric E. Okereke Emmanuel U. Asogwa Dominic O. Abonyi Nnaemeka C. Ugwu Augustine A. Nwazunku Agwu N. Amadi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 423 439 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.3 Anti-arthritic potential of aqueous leaf extract of Combretum platypterum (Welw) Hutch & Dalziel (Combretaceae) on rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1164 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Combretum platypterum </em>is used in the treatment of malaria, swellings, lumps, conjunctivitis, backache, fever, helminthiasis and diarrhea in ethnomedicine. This study evaluates the anti-arthritis activity of aqueous leaf extract<em> of C.</em><em>platypterum. C. platypterum </em>leaf sample was pulverized and the powdered sample was extracted using cold maceration, which was freeze dried, and graded doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were administered for the anti-arthritis property using an established formaldehyde and Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis models in rats. The result showed that the extract had a significant reduction in the diameter of formaldehyde induced inflammation at day 10 (0.97, 0.97, 0.67 and 0.8 mm) and Complete Freund’s adjuvant at day 28 (1.98, 1.79, 1.77, 1.43 mm) when compared with arthritis control for days 10 and 28 (2.95 and 4.06 mm) (p &lt; 0.05). Percentage inhibition of the leaf extract in formaldehyde at day 10 (67.12, 67.12, 77.29, and 71.86 %) and Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis at day 28 (51.23, 55.91, 56.40 and 64.78 %) showed a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of<em> C.</em><em> platypterum </em>in dose dependent order. The ankle weight, erythrocyte sedimentary rate (ESR) and malondialdehyde level had a significant (p &lt; 0.05) decrease in graded doses on complete freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis rats when compared with arthritis control <em>C.</em><em> platypterum </em>leaf extract elicited a significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in endogenous superoxide dismutase on complete freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis when compared with arthritis control. This study led it credence to <em>C. platypterum</em> leaf extract scientifically validated for its anti-arthritis property</p> Dickson Onyenmulo Uwaya MacDonald Idu Joy osaruese Ikonomwan Benjamin Ogunma Gabriel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 440 455 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.4 Anti-glycemic potential of Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev.) Stevels Pod aqueous and methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1158 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Diabetes</em> <em>mellitus</em> is a lingering disease associated with pancreatic malfunctioning unable to synthesize sufficient insulin, or the insulin produced by the body cannot be effectively utilized, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the body. This study evaluates the anti-diabetic activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of <em>Abelmoschus caillei </em>in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male rats were administered with 45 mg/kg Streptozotocin (STZ) to induce-diabetes for 3 days and thereafter treated with graded oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of aqueous and methanol pod extracts of <em>A. caillei</em> for 28 days. Hematological analysis, biochemical analysis and histopathology of the heart, were carried out using standard procedures. The results from this study showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood glucose levels at day 28 of the aqueous and methanol extracts (67.37; 130 mg/dL and 173.0; 140.0 mg/dL) with percentage reduction of (68.29; 56.3% and 30.7; 45.8%) respectively when compared with glibenclamide group and diabetes control (220.7 mg/dl; 43.98 % and 418.7 mg/dl; 0%). The hematological, lipid profile and liver function test had a slight significant difference specifically at 400 mg/kg of the extracts when compared with the control p&gt; 0.05. The architectural frame work of the organ’s histopathology elicited no deformities in liver, kidney, pancreases, lungs, and heart the treated groups when compared with the diabetic control. This study showed that <em>A</em>.<em> caillei</em> extracts possess anti-diabetic potentials, thereby supporting the claims in the management of diabetes from the traditional folk’s report.</p> Goddidit Esiro Enoyoze MacDonald Idu Benjamin Ogunma Gabriel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 456 474 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.5 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Wound Infections in Zaria, Nigeria. https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1134 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Methicillin Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) has been a major culprit in many problematic infections especially in wound infections due to its failure to respond to antibiotics and a leading bacterial agent in community acquired infections and infections acquired in hospitals. This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotic resistant profile of MRSA in patients with wound infections in Zaria.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Two hundred and seventy-two wound swabs were collected from three hospitals in Zaria, Kaduna State. These were analyzed using standard microbiological and biochemical procedures for staphylococcal isolation. Confirmed <em>S. aureus</em> isolates were evaluated for methicillin resistance using cefoxitin disc and multidrug resistance status.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Of the 272 suspected Staphylococcal isolates analyzed, 73 (27%) were confirmed as <em>S. aureus</em> isolates, of which 63 (86 %) were MRSA. The infection rate of MRSA was found to be higher in males than in females. MRSA strains were 100 % resistant to the β- lactam antibiotics, with 57.1 % being multidrug resistant, but were susceptible to Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and Tetracycline.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">We recorded a high proportion of MRSA and Multidrug resistant-MRSA isolates from wound infections in Zaria, thus, much emphasis on infection control measures should be prioritized. There is the need to increase the effectiveness of prevention and infection control measures as well as treatment of MRSA infections.</p> Zubayda AbdulAziz Josiah Ademola Onaolapo Yakubu Kokori Ibrahim Busayo Olayinka Mukhtar Muhammad Abdulaziz Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 475 489 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.6 Diluent performance of a three component co-processed excipient for formulating ibuprofen tablets by wet granulation https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1130 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Pharmaceutical tablets ingested orally remain the most popular dosage form in drug delivery, while the most frequently used route for administration of therapeutic agents remains the oral route. Recently, excipient development comprising a mixture of two or more materials assembled in a single frame by means of particle engineering, known as co-processed excipients, has gained enormous popularity.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">To prepare ibuprofen tablets by co-processing and wet granulation method and evaluate its diluent property.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">From the design of experiment (DOE), the optimized composition was obtained and ibuprofen granules were prepared for the newly developed co-processed excipient (lactose, mucin and corn starch BP) and starlac®, cellactose® and lactose as standards. The granules were evaluated for their micromeritic properties and compressed into tablets. Evaluation of the ibuprofen tablets for their physical properties and dissolution studies were done using British Pharmacopoeia methods.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The results obtained showed that ibuprofen granules were flowable and compressible. The compressed ibuprofen tablets had good physical properties: minimal weight variation (495±9.46 – 501mg ±23.15), hardness (5.50 ±0.55 – 6.50±1.05 KgF), disintegration “time” &lt; 15 min±0.37 and “friability” &lt; 1.0 % ±0.00 - &gt;1.0±0.07. The dissolution of ibuprofen tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeia criteria.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The data obtained from the different evaluation parameters containing the co-processed excipient compared well with starlac, cellactose and lactose used as comparing standard. The co-processed excipient which performed better than starlac in terms of friability and lactose in terms of disintegration can serve as a good diluent in ibuprofen tablets.</p> Boma Mohammed Zwanden Sule Yahaya Danjuma Mallam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 490 502 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.7 Chemical Constituents and Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Hibiscus articulatus Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Malvaceae) on Glucose- and Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycaemia using Wistar Rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1121 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Hibiscus articulatus</em> is an herbaceous plant that is consumed over decades as diet, in management stomach pain and diabetes in north central Nigeria. The aim of the study is to determine the chemical constituents and evaluate the effect of ethanol leaf extract of <em>Hibiscus articulatus</em> (ELEHA) on glucose- and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia using Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometric (GC-MS) analyses was conducted on ELEHA. Acute toxicity, blood glucose levels of ELEHA in Wistar rats was evaluated using; glycaemic index (GI) test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia test. Secondary metabolites; alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes and primary metabolites; carbohydrates, proteins and fats, were present in ELEHA. Ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, coumaran, phytol hexadecanoic acid are some chemical constituents present in ELEHA. The oral median lethal dose was estimated to be &gt; 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The glycaemic index and glycaemic load of ELEHA were calculated to be 41.60 % and 17.83 respectively. There was significant (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level (250 and 500 mg/kg of ELEHA administered) in OGTT and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia test compared with diabetic group. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were evaluated however, only superoxide dismutase levels (250 and 500 mg/kg) were significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) increased. Moreso, the level of low density lipoprotein (125 mg/kg) and HOMA IR values (125 and 250 mg/kg) were significantly (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) decreased when compared with diabetic group. In summary, the ethanol leaf extract of <em>Hibiscus articulatus</em> possesses important phytochemicals with anti-hyperglycaemic activity on Wistar rats.</p> Medinat Abbas Yakubu Prof. Sherifat B. Anafi Prof. Abdulkadir U. Zezi Prof. Bisalla Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 503 532 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.8 Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Study https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1033 <div><span lang="EN-GB">Escherichia coli (E. coli), a normal gastro-intestinal microflora of humans and animals can be pathogenic causing a wide range of diseases. Rational use of antibiotics is one way of reducing antimicrobial resistance. This study retrospectively assessed the antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli from clinical samples at University of Abuja Teaching Hospital. Records of test results of microbial, culture and sensitivity from clinical samples from January 2016 to December 2019 were studied. A proforma was used to collect data from the record on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of E. coli. Discrete and categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. Requirements for the study were met in 91.7% of the data collected. Female clients 81.8% were more than their male counterparts. Urine samples have the highest number of E. coli 62%. This was followed by samples from palate swab 14%. Eye swab, vaginal swab, ascitic fluid and pleural fluid had one each (0.03%). The penicillin were mostly resisted by the isolates, while most were sensitive to the fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. Summary of the resistance patterns from 2016 to 2019 showed most isolates were sensitive to the effect of antimicrobials used in 2016 and 2018, while most were resistant in 2017 and 2019. The urinary tract was the most common site of E. coli infection. The pattern of resistance was inconsistent across all antibiotic classes studied</span></div> ZAINAB ABUBAKAR GALADIMA Victoria Ogechukwu Ugwu Isaiah Olumeko Tanko Nuhu Muhammad Garba Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 533 551 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.9 Molecular Evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistant Genes Among Pregnant Women Attending ANC at Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital (MAWCH) Sokoto, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/977 <p>Research was conducted on the molecular survey of drug resistant <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>falciparum</em> malaria among pregnant women attending ante natal care (ANC) at Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital (MAWCH) Sokoto, Nigeria from February, 2020 to May, 2020. Blood samples of 200 pregnant women who came for ANC in the Hospital were collected and Questionnaire administered. Thin and thick blood film microscopy and <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>mono clonal antibody specific RDT kit were used to detect <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em>. <em>P. falciparum</em> positive dried blood samples were investigated for the presence of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt genes using PCR protocol. Results for the investigation of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes revealed 26.30% and 89.50% prevalence respectively, while 4 samples were positive for both genes representing 21.05% prevalence. Prevalence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes do not associate (p&gt;0.05) with any of the parameters tested. Spread of the mutant genes observed in this study may be attributed to the continuous use of antimalarial drugs that the parasite developed resistant to. Pregnant women should be attending early ante-natal care booking and attend clinic regularly, malaria control programs should be carried out in the state.</p> Hafiz Abubakar Aminu Bala Yabo Haliru Muhammad Bandiya Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 2 5, September-October 552 567 10.54117/jcbr.v2i5.10