Journal of Current Biomedical Research https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr <p><em>Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR)</em>, a peer-reviewed, open access journal published every two months with six issues in a year. It is a biomedical publication, which provides both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. JCBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that stimulates further investigation of potentially relevant findings as well as studies with negative findings. JCBR publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor.</p> Nnamdi Azikiwe University en-US Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2659-0352 A A safety profile of aqueous methanol aerial extract of Alysicarpus glumaceus in mice: acute and subacute administration https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1107 <p><em>Alysicarpus glumaceus </em>(Vahl D.C), family-leguminosae is used traditionally for a number of ailments in Nigeria, as well as in other African countries, Asia and middle east. The leaf is taken orally for thrush, sores and asthma. While root decoction is taken for coughs and its combination with leaf sap is taken for diarrhea and as an abortifacient. The aerial parts are used for the management of neuropsychiatric disorders mainly depression and currently been used by drivers in combination with tea to keep alert on long drive in northern Nigeria. The aim of this work was to determine the median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) and the effect of aqueous methanol extract (AME) of <em>Alysicarpus glumaceus</em> on the body weight, behavioural changes, heamatological, histopathological parameters and rate of mortality after an acute and sub-acute toxicity study of 28 days using three graded doses (500, 1000 &amp; 1500 mg/kg) in mice via the oral route. From the results obtained LD<sub>50 </sub>was greater than 5000 mg/kg, it had no significant effect on their body weights as well as on their physical behaviour. Slight lesions were observed in kidney and liver of animals given 1500 mg/kg of AME. There was no statistical difference (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) between the control and the treated groups for packed cell volume and platelet count. These findings suggest that the AME of <em>Alysicarpus glumaceus</em> is not likely to produce toxic effects and suggest that the extract is relatively safe in mice.</p> Ferhat Khan Munir Sani Amina Olorukooba Ibrahim Abdu-Aguye Danraka Saaratu mohammed Magaji Isa Hussaini Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 224 243 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.18 Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Methanol Leaf Extract of Senna italica (Mill.) Using Cotton Pellet-induced Granuloma Model in Wistar Rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1093 <p><em>Senna italica</em> Mill. belonging to the family Fabaceae has been used traditionally to treat various ailments diseases including skin diseases, fever, jaundice, stomachache, burns and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol leaf extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening and oral acute toxicity studies were carried out using standard protocols. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in Wistar rats using cotton pellet-induced granuloma model at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids. The oral median lethal dose was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. The extract reduced wet granuloma weight with percentage inhibition of 5.9%, 52.9% and 47.1 % at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively compared to the negative control. At same doses, the extract showed 14.3%, 17.1% and 28.6% inhibition in weight of dry cotton pellet. A significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction was observed in platelets, platelet lymphocyte ratio, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels.The result from this study suggests that the methanol leaf extract of <em>Senna italica</em> has anti-inflammatory activity supporting the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of inflammation and inflammatory related diseases.</p> Amina Busola Olorukooba Aishatu Shehu Ferhat Khan Asmau Hamza Nasir Aisha Oiza Musa Munir Ari Sani Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 209 223 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.24 Methanol root extract of Pausinystalia yohimbe, an aphrodisiac influences Morphology of sperm cells in male Wistar Rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/988 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>T</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p>The production and classification of sperm shape abnormalities in laboratory animals through administration of chemical agents, be it natural or synthetic, has in recent years developed into a very reliable, species and drug specific method of assay for testing the mutagenicity of phytotherapeutic agent. In this research, observed numbers, percentage and types of dysmorphisms induced by the oral administration of <em>Pausinystalia yohimbe</em> methanol root extract in varying doses in male wistar rats were investigated. Forty five rats were randomly divided into five groups of nine rats each. Rats in group I (control) were administered 1 mL/kg distilled water, group II received 5 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate, while those in groups III, IV, and V were given 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 14 days after which they were sacrificed and sperm cells were analysed for possible morphological abnormalities. In this study, oral administration of the extract has significant (<em>p &lt; 0.05</em>) effect on the morphology of sperm cells, with sperm normalities decreases, while abnormalities increases when compared with the control groups. However, the abnormalities decreased dose dependently with slightly increase in normalities. The abnormal morphology ranged from double heads, tailless sperm, headless sperm, double tails, short sperm and bent tail in both extract and sildenafil citrate administered animals. The tailless sperm morphological changes had the highest rate of occurrence. The observation confirmed that mutagenicity of chemical agents, be it natural or synthetic, could be tested and compared using the sperm head-shape abnormality assay method, thereby predicting simple to complex dysmorphisms.</p> Adekunle Ojatula Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 160 170 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.22 Isolation, characterization and antibiogram of bacteria from African catfish skin ulcer in Abia state Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1084 <p><strong> </strong></p> <p>Bacteria associated with African catfish skin ulcers cultured in Abia state, Nigeria have not been documented. This study was conducted to determine the antibiogram of bacteria isolates associated with skin ulcers of African catfish cultured in selected localities of Abia State. Twenty (20) African catfish with skin ulcers were purposively sampled from the selected farms. Scrapings from skin ulcers were collected from samples from Aba north and Osisioma, processed for bacteria isolation and identification. Susceptibility of bacteria isolates to antimicrobial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. Sixty percent of the samples from Abia north in combination with 50% and Osisioma, showed positive culture for <em>Aeromonas hydrophila </em>(40%)<em>, Escherichia coli </em>(30%)<em>, Proteus spp </em>(10%) and <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> (20%); and <em>Klebsiella sp</em> (10%) and <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em> (40%). The frequency of isolation of 30 identified bacteria isolates was <em>Aeromonas hydrophila </em>(23.33%), <em>Escherichia coli </em>(36.37%), <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> (16.67%) and<em> Proteus sp </em>(10%) and <em>Klebsiella spp. </em>(13.3%). <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>, <em>Escherichia coli, Proteus spp and</em> <em>Klebsiella spp</em> exhibited highest resistance to Vancomycin (100%). Similarly, <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em>, <em>Proteus spp and</em> <em>Klebsiella spp</em> exhibited highest resistance to Nalidixic acid (100%), whereas <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> and <em>Proteus spp</em> also showed highest resistance to Tetracycline (100%). All isolates from this study exhibited multi-drug resistance to antimicrobials. These organisms isolated were pathogenic and transferable to the final consumers. Hence, there is the need to ensure that African catfish with skin ulcers are thoroughly screened and appropriate medication given for prevention and control.</p> Christian Ozioko Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 171 186 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.21 Antioxidative stress and nephroprotective activity of leaf fractions of Setaria megaphylla in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1102 <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><em>Setaria megaphylla</em> (Steud) Dur &amp; Schinz (Poaceae), a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat diabetes was investigated for antioxidative stress and renoprotective potentials against alloxan-induced kidney injuries in diabetic rats. Standard biochemical and histological methods were used to determine oxidative stress markers levels, kidney function indices and kidney histopathology, which were used as parameters to evaluate antioxidative stress and renoprotective activities of the leaf fractions (200 mg/kg). Significantly (p&lt;0.05 – 0.001) increased levels of kidney oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH) and decreased MDA level were caused by the leaf fractions in the treated-diabetic rats. Creatinine and urea levels were also significantly (p&lt;0.05-0.001) reduced, while electrolytes levels were not significantly (p&gt;0.05) reduced when compared to control. Kidney histology revealed absence or significant reductions in pathological features in the treated diabetic rats relative to untreated diabetic rats. The results suggest that the leaf fractions of <em>Setaria megaphylla </em>possess antioxidative stress and nephroprotective potentials due to the antioxidant activities of their phytochemical constituents.</p> Jude E. Okokon Koofreh Davies Godswill J. Udom Lekara John Klinton Iwara Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 197 208 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.19 Standardization of Aneilema lanceolatum as a potential medicinal plant https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1091 <div> <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Aneilema lanceolatum</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> is a</span><span lang="EN-US"> weed plant commonly found in farm lands and bushes around tropical African countries. The plant is utilized as livestock feeds and in traditional medicine in northern Nigeria for the treatment and management of pains, infectious diseases and as sexual stimulant. The present study was aimed at establishing microscopic, physicochemical and phytochemical constituents of the plant. The aerial parts of the plant was collected </span><span lang="EN-US">in May, 2021 </span><span lang="EN-US">from Kubanni, Sabon-gari local government area of Kaduna state and were</span><span lang="EN-US"> identified and authenticated at the Herbarium unit of the Department of Botany, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria and a voucher number ABU0533 was assigned.</span> <span lang="EN-US">The physicochemical parameters, microscopic evaluation and qualitative and quantitative screening of the plant were carried out using standard procedures.</span><span lang="EN-US"> The stomatal index of the upper epidermis (</span><span lang="EN-US">18.60±1.91) </span><span lang="EN-US">is lower than the lower epidermis (</span><span lang="EN-US">22.10±2.03) with palisade ratio of 10.07±0.90. The microscopic of the stem and leaf revealed presence of epidermis, xylem and phloem. Moisture content of the powdered plants was 1.23±0.05% with water and alcohol extractives values of 20.40±0.03% and 12.40±0.05% respectively. The total ash, water-soluble and acid-insoluble ash values are 5.52±0.02, 2.05±0.02% and 2.62±0.01% respectively. </span><span lang="EN-US">The microscopic characters revealed presence of wavy and polygonal shapes of epidermal cells with anomocytic type of stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes. </span><span lang="EN-US">The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies revealed presence of saponins (10.61%), alkaloids (0.98%), terpenoids (0.10%) and flavonoids (4.08%). The pharmacognostic parameters of the aerial parts of <em>A. lanceolatum</em> were established.</span></p> </div> Hadiza Ibrahim Mohammed Zakir Abdulhamid Bilatus Tesa M Ibrahim Sabo Vallada Atinga Tabitha Musa Lubo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 187 195 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.20 Primary sclerosing lipogranuloma in a a young Nigerian male; A case report with a review of literature https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/1116 <p>Sclerosing lipogranuloma (SL) of the male external genitalia is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion presenting as subcutaneous masses. The underlying pathological process is a chronic granulomatous reaction of degenerating endogenous or exogenous lipids. We report a case of primary scrotal SL in a 22-year-old Nigerian. The lesion was completely excision and the patient is on long-term follow-up without recurrence.</p> Obiora Uchendu Godwin Yovwin Christopher Idemudia Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 244 248 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.17 Application of Cyperus esculentus oil in the development of sustained release diclofenac sodium-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jcbr/article/view/967 <p>The aim of the work was to develop sustained release diclofenac sodium nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) using tigernut oil (TNO), solid lipids and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) and to evaluate the properties of the formulations. Structured lipids containing tiger nut oil, Softisan®154 and Phospholipon® 90H at varying ratios were prepared by fusion and used as the lipid carrier in formulating the NLC. PEGylated lipid carriers were also employed and the physicochemical properties of these formulations were studied using standard methods including particle size and polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and drug release. The results revealed some monodispersed nano-sized formulations that were stable over time. Particle size ranged from 75.22 ± 22.72 nm to 78.11 ± 32.73 nm. High encapsulation efficiency of about 92 % was obtained confirming the suitability of the TNO based carrier. <em>In vitro</em> drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.2) revealed that PEGylated diclofenac sodium-loaded NLC exhibited significantly higher sustained release properties than the non-PEGylated formulations (p &lt;0.05). The results of the drug release kinetics models revealed that the NLC followed a mixed order release kinetic. Hence, the findings in this work showed that TNO could be used as a lipid carrier matrix in combination with other solid lipids for the development of sustained release diclofenac sodium-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier.</p> Salome Chime Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 2 3, May-June 145 159 10.54117/jcbr.v2i3.23