UNIZIK Journal of STM Education https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme <p>The UNIZIK Journal of STM Education publishes reports of empirical research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education as well as related studies in education generally. The publication constitutes a critical medium of communicating well researched works for the science community as well as a forum for communication and cooperation among STEM teachers, policy makers, educators and other educational practitioners across the globe.</p> <p>The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the editorial board but of individual authors. The Editorial board of UNIZIK Journal of STM Education appreciates those who subscribe to the journal, reviewers and the consulting editors for their contributions.</p> <p>Authors are to send their articles through <a href="mailto:jstme@journals.unizik.edu.ng">jstme@journals.unizik.edu.ng</a></p> UNIZIK JOURNAL OF STM EDUCATION en-US UNIZIK Journal of STM Education 1597-8249 Path Analysis of Student-Related Factors Affecting Academic Achievement in Chemistry among College of Education Students in Delta State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/502 <p><em>The study focused on the path analysis of student-related factors affecting academic achievement in chemistry among college of education students in Delta state. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The design adopted for the study was correlation survey with path-analytic research background. The population of the study was 1, 274 chemistry education students in Colleges of Education in Delta state. A sample of 200 SS 2 chemistry education students was involved in the study. The instruments for data collection were Chemistry Test Anxiety Questionnaire (CTAQ), Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), Study Habit Scale (SHS), Chemistry Attitude Scale (CAS), Academic Resilience Scale (ARS), Chemistry Interest Scale (CIS), Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ), Self-regulated Learning Skills Questionnaire (CSRLSQ), Self-esteem Scale (SES). The instruments were validated by experts in relevant fields. The reliability of the instruments were established using Cronbach Alpha. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, multiple correlations, path analysis and analysis of moment structures. The findings of the study revealed that the joint predict of the 10 variables of achievement in chemistry was significant. The study also found out that the most meaningful path model for predicting achievement in chemistry involved the elimination of attitude and emotional intelligence after trimming the just-identified model. The study recommended that diagnostic analysis of student-related variables should be carried out at the point of admission and as the student progress academically by student affair departments in colleges of education in order to find out the areas the student may need orientation, guidance or counseling. </em></p> A. C. Nwanze J. N. Okoli Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 1 13 Development and Validation of Geo-TAN Instructional Software Package for Teaching Geometry in Senior Secondary School https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/503 <p><em>Students have consistently showed significant weakness in geometry. Majority of the candidates in the senior secondary school examination avoid questions drawn from</em><em> geometry, specifically questions based on chord properties, circle theorems and tangent to a circle.</em><em> Teaching of Mathematics in secondary schools in Nigeria is mostly done using conventional expository method which has been identified as a major cause of students’ poor performance in Mathematics especially in geometry. </em><em>In this 21st century, teaching and learning</em><em> of many topics in Mathematics require the use of computer and this entails </em><em>that relevant instructional software packages that teach specific lessons especially the difficult and abstract concepts such as geometry should be developed. In this study GeoTAN Instructional Software Package (GISP) was developed, validated for teaching geometry in secondary schools in Nigeria. GISP was developed for use in the following application software namely; Cinema 4D, Macromedia Flash 8, Macromedia Fireworks 8, Microsoft Word and Adobe Audition. The software development models that were adopted in the development of GISP are Gerlach and Ely;</em><em> and </em><em>ADDIE models. A t</em><em>hree-stage validation process was used in validating GISP. </em><em>Educational Software Package Rating Scale (ESPRS) was used by seven Mathematics educators for content validation of GISP.</em><em> Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance was used to analyse the rating scores in order to determine the agreement or concordance among the raters and reliability of the GISP</em><em>.</em><em> The result revealed Kendall's W of 0.82 which indicated that there is agreement among Mathematics educators that the subject matter contents of the developed GISP sufficiently covered the required areas of geometry in senior secondary school two (SS2) Mathematics curriculum. The result showed also that Mathematics educators rated GISP independently and it is reliable for instructional purposes.</em><em> From the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that GISP should be used by Mathematics teachers in teaching geometry concepts to SS 2 students.</em></p> C. Njoku E. C. Okigbo Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 14 28 Industry-Related Mathematics Skills Acquisition for Job Performance by Senior Secondary School Students in Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/504 <p><em>The industry-related mathematics skills acquisition for job performance by senior secondary school students in Anambra State, Nigeria was determined. Descriptive survey design was adopted. Three research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was carried out in in the State. Sample comprised 2,495 senior secondary schools three (SS3) mathematics students drawn from a population of 42,002 in the state through stratified random sampling technique. The Industrial Mathematics Skills Acquisition Test (IMSAT) was used as instrument for data collection. The IMSAT was validated by three experts and Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was used to establish its reliability which yielded a reliability index of 0.89. The IMSAT was administered to students from the sampled schools. The research questions were answered using aggregate score, mean and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested using t-test. Findings of the study indicated that: majority of the students irrespective of gender and school location had good acquisition of industry-related mathematics skills for job performance; there was no significant difference between male and female, urban and rural students on industry-related mathematics skills acquisition. It was concluded that in Anambra State senior secondary schools, students were sufficiently exposed to industry-related mathematics skills for gainful employment in industries. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that; mathematics teachers should continue to teach mathematics in such a way that the students’ good acquisition of industry-related mathematics skills will be sustained.</em></p> C. I. Nkanyimo S. O. C. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 29 40 Gender and Academic Retention of Secondary School Students Taught Electrostatics with Computer Animated Instructional Package in Awka Education Zone https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/505 <p><em>Several researchers had investigated how multi-media could be used to improve understanding of difficult and abstract topics in physics yet; a few studies have been conducted to investigate the gender differences in students’ learning retention through multi-media use. This paper determined gender differences in students’ academic retention in electrostatics through computer animated instructional package (CAIP)in Awka Education Zone. of Anambra state, Nigeria. One research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was adopted for the study. Population was 3,438 senior secondary one (SS I) students from government owned co-educational secondary schools in the area. A sample of 68SS I from Awka south and Dunukofia Local Government Areas was selected through multistage sampling. The students were exposed CAIP produced by the researchers which is based on the content of the SS I physics scheme of work. Instrument for data collection was Electric Charge Electric Field Achievement Retention Test (ECEFART) validated by three experts with a reliability index of 0.89 using KR-20 formula. Mean and Analysis of covariance were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that; gender had no significant influence on students’ retention in electrostatics when taught with CAIP; there was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on students’ academic retention. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that since computer animated package enhances retention in physics, teachers should embrace its usage in classroom.</em></p> A. N. Nwoye S. O. C. Okeke F. C. Nwosu Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 41 50 Effect of Group Instruction Technique on Secondary School Students’ Interest in Civic Education in Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/506 <p><em>The persistent poor students’ interest in Civic education is a major concern and there is need to ameliorate it. This study examined the effect of group instruction technique (GIT) on secondary school students’ interest in civic education in Anambra State. Two</em><em> research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed quasi-experimental design. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 193 Senior Secondary two (SS2) students from six intact classes. The experimental group was 92 (48 males and 44 females) while the control group was 101 (54 males and 47 females). Civic Interest Scale (CIS) was used as instrument for data collection. Validation of the instrument was established by experts in the field of civic education and measurement and evaluation, while Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used to establish the reliability of CIS at r = .82. Experimental and control groups were taught Civic education for six weeks using GIT and Lecture method respectively. Mean and Standard deviation were used to analyse data to answer the research questions, while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses using SPSS version 23.0.Findings revealed that the use of GIT significantly enhanced SS 2 students’ interest in Civic education more than the Lecture method. Gender was a significant factor on the effect of GIT on students’ interest in civic education among other findings. Based on the findings, it was concluded that GIT is a good alternative teaching technique to improve students’ interest in civic education. It is therefore recommended among others that, GIT should be formally adopted by secondary school teachers for effective teaching of Civic education to improve students’ interest in the subject.</em></p> G. C. Unachukwu O. K. Okoli Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 51 62 Extent of Integration of Practical Work in the Teaching of Chemistry by Secondary Schools Teachers in Taraba State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/507 <p><em>This study investigated the extent of integration of practical work in the teaching of chemistry by secondary school teachers in Taraba State, Nigeria. It was guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling was used to select 45 out of 76 chemistry teachers in the 76 secondary schools. A questionnaire constructed by the researcher which consists of 22 items, drawn on five-point scale was used to collect data for the study. Validation of the research instrument was carried out by three experts from the Department of Science Education and reliability established using Cronbach Alpha which yielded a coefficient value of 0.81. Data for the research were collected through self-administered questionnaire by the researchers and the two assistants. The analysis of the data was done using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels with One-way analysis of variance. The findings revealed that the extent of integration of practical work in the teaching of Chemistry by secondary schools teachers in Taraba State is low and this was influenced by teachers’ qualification. The study recommended among others that chemistry teachers should ensure frequent integration of practical work in the teaching of topics in chemistry using appropriate methods.</em></p> S. Adamu N. N. Achufusi-Aka Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 63 75 Effect of Use of Combined Physical and Inquiry Virtual Laboratories on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physics in Enugu State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/508 <p><em>There had been poor enrolment and poor achievement of secondary school students in Physics over the years in Enugu state. Thus, the researchers were motivated to investigate the effect of use of combined physical and inquiry virtual laboratories (CPIVL) on achievement of senior secondary two (SS2) students in Physics in Enugu State, Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The research adopted a non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design. The population of the size was 3, 206 SS2 students. Two hundred and twenty (220) SS2 physics students (120 males and 100 females) formed the sample size. The sample was composed using two stage sampling procedure. The research instrument used was Electricity Achievement Test (EAT). The EAT and lesson plan were validated by three experts. The reliability index was established using, the Kudar Richardson Formula 20 which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.77. Experimental group was taught using CPIVL while the Control group was taught using physical laboratory only. Data were collected by administering EAT to the participants as pre-test and post-test. The data analysis was carried out using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance.&nbsp; The findings showed that the use of combined Physical and Inquiry Virtual Laboratories had more positive effect on students’ achievement when compared to the use of only physical lab. The use of CPIVL enhanced the achievement of male physics students more than their female counterparts taught the same way. Based on the findings it was recommended that teachers should expose physics students to virtual lab activities so as to promote meaningful learning, discovery learning and learning by experience among students. Also teachers should make teaching and learning of physics gender friendly by adopting the use of CPIVL in teaching physics concepts.</em></p> C. C. Onuh E. C. Okigbo Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 76 87 Secondary School Students’ Learning Style, Achievement Motivation and Gender as Predictors of Mathematics Achievement in Imo State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/509 <p><em>The learning style, achievement motivation and gender as predictors of mathematics achievement were examined. Four research questions guided the study and four null hypotheses were tested. The study adopted a correlation survey design. A total of 882 (486 males and 396 females) senior secondary 2 students from 14 out of 124 secondary schools in Owerri Education Zone of Imo State were involved in the study. The researchers used simple random sampling technique to draw the sample. The instruments used for data collection were Barsch Learning Style Inventory (BLSI) and Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS). The cumulative average scores of students’ results were used as their academic achievement scores.&nbsp; The instruments were validated by experts. The reliability was established using Cronbach Alpha which was found to be 0.85 and 0.81 respectively for BLSI and AMS. The data collected were analysed using correlation coefficient and multiple regression with the aid of SPSS version 20. The findings of the study revealed that learning style significantly predicts students’ achievement in mathematics irrespective of gender. The findings also showed that achievement motivation does not significantly predict female students’ achievement in mathematics but significantly predicts male students’ mathematics achievement. The study recommended that Mathematics teachers should be trained on the strategies which are related to the learning styles and achievement motivation and at the same time help students to belief in their own capability.</em></p> D. C. Duru S. O. C. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 88 99 Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction and Demonstration Method on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Computer Studies in Ogidi Education Zone https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/510 <p><em>The study </em><em>investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) and demonstration method on secondary school students’ achievement in computer studies in Ogidi Education Zone</em><em>. Two research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were tested 0.05 level of significance. Quasi-experimental design was adopted, specifically the pre-test post-test non-equivalent group design. The population for the study was 2,314 computer studies from the zone. A sample of 206 SS 2 computer studies students was involved in the study. The instrument for data collection was Computer Studies Achievement Test (CSAT) validated by two experts and one experienced computer studies teacher. The reliability of the CSAT was established using Kuder-Richardson formula 20 which yielded a coefficient value of 0.79. Data were collected by administering the instruments as pre-test and post-test before and after treatment respectively. The data obtained were analysed using mean, standard deviation to answer research questions and Analysis of Covariance to test the hypotheses. The CAI was found to be more effective in enhancing the achievement in computer studies than the demonstration method. Demonstration method however, was more effective than expository method. The findings of the study showed recommended that computer studies teachers should adopt the use of CAI and demonstration method in teaching computer studies. </em></p> F. N. Egbo F. C. Offiah N. M. Nweke I. O. Anusiuba Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 100 112 Availability and Utilization of Cartoons for Effective Teaching of English Language in Primary Schools in Idemili South LGA https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/511 <p><em>The study investigated the availability and utilization of cartoons for the effective teaching of English language in primary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Two research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised all the 58 English language teachers in the area. There was no sampling as the population is of manageable size. The instrument for data collection was a 20-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. The instrument was validated by three experts and was found reliable with reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.70 respectively for the two clusters using Chronbach Alpha technique. The data collected were analysed using percentages and mean. The findings revealed that cartoons are available and utilized for teaching English language in primary schools. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that teachers should use the informal, progressive and cartoon animation strategies that will develop in pupils high ordered skills needed for exploratory, experimental and creative learning in English language.</em></p> O. I. Ikwuka C. P. Ubah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 113 122 Relationship between Secondary School Students’ Cognitive Learning Skills and Academic Achievement in Physics in Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/512 <p><em>In teaching and learning, memory processing skills of students determine how far they will gain from the learning activities. Based on this fact, this study investigated the relationship between secondary school students’ cognitive learning skills and their academic achievement in physics in Anambra State. Five research questions guided the study and three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a correlation survey design. The population of the study consisted of 8,500 senior secondary school two (SS2) physics students in 258 governments owned secondary schools in the state. The sample for the study was 1000 SS 2 physics students drawn from 30 schools using multi-stage sampling. The instrument for data collection was researchers’ self-developed Cognitive Learning Skills Questionnaire (CLSQ) while the students’ achievement was obtained from their promotion examination results. The CLSQ was validated by three experts and its reliability established using Cronbach Alpha which gave coefficient value of 0.81. The data were collected by administering the questionnaire to the respondents. Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and simple regression were used for data analysis. The findings showed that there was a high positive and significant relationship between cognitive learning skills and academic achievement of students in physics. There was also a significant positive relationship between cognitive learning skills and academic achievement of both male and female students in physics. Based on the findings, it was recommended that physics teachers should challenge students with learning materials that encourage them to constantly develop their cognitive skills towards meaningful learning.</em></p> E. C. Okigbo O. I. Nsidinanya Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 123 134 Readability of Recommended Chemistry Textbooks as Correlate of Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Enugu State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/513 <p><em>This study investigated the relationship between the senior secondary school two (SS2) students’ readability of recommended chemistry textbooks and their achievement in chemistry in Enugu state. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted correlation survey research design. The population of the study consisted of seven recommended chemistry textbooks used in Enugu State and 6300 SS2 chemistry students from 254 secondary schools in the State. The sample for the study consisted of three commonly used chemistry textbooks and 376 SS2 chemistry students selected from 12 secondary schools in Enugu state. The sample comprised of 188 male and 188 female students, selected from single boys, single girls and co-educational schools using a multistage sampling procedure.&nbsp; The instrument used for data collection was Cloze test of readability of chemistry textbook (CTRCT). The cumulative grade scores of the students were collected from the sample schools to measure students’ academic achievement. The CTRCT was validated by three experts in Science Education. The instruments were trial tested on 30 SS2 chemistry students and the data collected were used to calculate the reliability of the instrument using Kuder-Richardson 20 Formula. It yielded an index of 0.83. Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson product correlation were used to answer the research questions while t-test for correlation was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding revealed that the readability level of the chemistry textbooks was standard for the male students and fairly difficult for the female students. Also, there was a significant relationship between the readability of chemistry textbooks and academic achievement of students in chemistry. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others, that chemistry textbooks should be revised periodically and the difficult words be replaced by the simpler words to facilitate reading comprehension for readers. </em></p> B. E. Ekwe S. O. C. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 135 144 Effect of Mind-Mapping Teaching Strategy on Students’ Retention in Senior Secondary School Computer Studies in Imo state, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/514 <p><em>Effect of mind-mapping teaching strategy on secondary school students’ retention in computer studies in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State was determined. Three research questions guided the study while three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels. The design adopted for the study was the quasi-experimental involving non-equivalent control groups. The population comprised 1,052 senior secondary two (SS 2) Computer studies students found in the four co-educational schools within the study area in 2017/2018 academic session. The sample for the study consisted of 105 SS 2 students from four intact classes which were selected through multistage sampling procedure. Two classes each were assigned to experimental and control groups. Data were collected using researcher-made Computer Studies Retention Test (CSRT) which was validated by experts. </em><em>The reliability coefficients obtained for the CSRT was 0.84 using Kuder Richardson Formula 20. The experimental group was taught using mind-mapping teaching strategy while the control group was taught with conventional method. The CSRT was administered to the participants as pre-test, post-test and retention tests and da</em><em>ta collected were analysed using mean, standard and analysis of covariance. Findings revealed that </em><em>mind-mapping strategy</em><em> significantly enhanced retention in computer studies more than the conventional strategy. Gender was not a significant factor in determining students' retention computer studies using mind- mapping strategy. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that computer studies teachers should be trained on the use of mind-mapping during their training process and the in-serving computer studies teachers also re-trained.</em></p> C. M. Okereke E. C. Okigbo Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 145 158 Effect of Metacognitive Teaching Method on Secondary School Students’ Achievement and Interest in Physics in Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/515 <p><em>Metacognitive teaching method (MTM) has been noted for its effectiveness in enhancing the achievement of science students in subjects like Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. This study investigated the effect of metacognitive teaching method on achievement and interest of secondary school students in physics. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. &nbsp;The study adopted a quasi -experimental design. The sample comprised 122 students (72 males and 50 females) senior secondary class one (SS 1) physics students purposively drawn from two co-educational secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State.&nbsp; One of the schools was randomly assigned to experimental group and the other to control group. Two instruments namely: the Physics Achievement Test (PAT) and Physics Interest Scale (PIS) were used to collect data for the study. The instruments were administered once and the reliability index of 0.74 was established on PAT using Kuder Richardson Formula 21 while the reliability of the PIS was established to be 0.83 using Cronbach alpha formula. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions while ANCOVA was used to test the null hypotheses. The results revealed that the MTM had significant effect on students’ achievement and interest in physics. The finding implied that MTM enhances students’ achievement and interest in physics more than the conventional method. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that physics teachers should adopt MTM for teaching physics concepts to secondary school students.</em></p> P. O. Uzobuike J. N. Okoli Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 159 167 Extent of Use of Practical Works by Biology Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/516 <p><em>The extent of use of practical work by secondary school biology teachers in public schools in Anambra State of Nigeria was investigated. The design adopted was descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised all the biology teachers in Anambra State. The sample for the study was made up of 221 biology teachers selected through multi-stage sampling. The instrument for data collection was researcher constructed questionnaire titled Practical Work Questionnaire. The instrument was subjected to validation by three experts while reliability index of 0.86 using Cronbach Alpha coefficient was obtained. The data collected were analysed using mean. The findings of the study showed that among others that the ways by which the use of practical work by biology teachers in teaching biology can be enhanced include continuous supply of materials, inspection of laboratories, use of alternatives to practical, project work, outdoor practical, field trips/excursions, improvisations, use of simulations, invitation to experts in subject area, and alternative power supply. The findings also showed that schools have materials and equipment for practical works which are used by biology teachers to a moderate extent. The study recommended that government should also create a separate department under the minister of education, charged with the responsibility of carrying out occasional and routine check of school practical works to ensure they are used for teaching biology.</em></p> C. O. Ogbuze J. N. Okoli Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 168 181 Secondary School Physics Teachers’ Level of Awareness and Extent of Use of Professional Ethics and Codes of Conduct in Enugu State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/517 <p><em>Secondary school Physics teachers’ awareness and use of professional ethics and codes of conduct in teaching in Enugu state was established. Six research questions and four null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. Descriptive survey design was employed in the conduct of the study. The population of the study involved 196 Physics teachers in the 291 government owned secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique specifically balloting with replacement was applied to obtain a sample of 105 Physics teachers from three education zones in the state. The codes of conducts questionnaire for Physics teachers (CCQPT) was used as the instrument for data collection. The CCQPT was validated by three experts. The coefficient of reliability was obtained using Cronbach Alpha method. The internal consistency of CCQPT was found to be 0.87and 0.76 for sections I and II respectively.&nbsp; Statistical mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings showed that Physics teachers are aware of and use the professional ethics and codes of conduct in teaching to a very high extent; there is no significant difference between the male and female Physics teachers’ awareness and use of professional ethics and codes of conduct in teaching. Recommendations were made among which are that Government should mandate all Physics teachers to register with TRCN and possess their maximum education training and appointment of ethics specialist who plays a role in top management decision making in schools should be approved.</em></p> O. C. Anosike E. C. Okigbo Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 182 200 Effect of Reflective Instructional Strategy on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Chemistry in Awka Education Zone, Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/518 <p><em>The strategy used in teaching chemistry to students is one of the determining factors towards their achievement. Thus the study investigated the effect of reflective instructional strategy (RIS) on secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A quasi experimental design, specifically pre-test post-test non-equivalent control group design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 2,474 senior secondary class two (SS2) chemistry students. A total of 165 SS2 chemistry students from four co-educational schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra state were involved in the study. Simple random sampling was used to select four schools from the 46 co-educational schools in the zone. The four schools were randomly assigned, two schools respectively were assigned to the experimental and control groups. Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts. The internal consistency of the CAT was established using KR-20. The reliability coefficient of 0.83 was obtained. Two regular chemistry teachers in each of the schools were trained on the use of RIS. The students in the experimental group were taught using RIS while the students in the control group were taught using conventional teaching method. Treatment in the two groups lasted for five weeks. The instrument was administered as pre-test and post-test. The data obtained were analysed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance. Findings showed that students in experimental group taught with RIS achieved significantly higher than those in the control group. Also, RIS influenced the achievement of both male and female students. The study recommended that, chemistry teachers should use RIS in teaching and learning of chemistry to male and female students so as to enhance their academic achievement. </em></p> O. S. Agbasi S. O. C. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 201 210 Information and Communication Technology Competences Possessed by Biology Teachers in Secondary Schools in Anambra State https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/index.php/jstme/article/view/519 <p><em>The new requirement for working and living in the 21<sup>st</sup> century is the ability of individuals to be technologically compliant. There is always need for teachers to possess the right competences to operate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities available in the schools. This necessitated the study on the ICT competences possessed by secondary school biology teachers in Anambra State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised 288 biology teachers in all government owned secondary schools in the state. The sample for the study comprised 99 biology teachers drawn from six education zones in the state using a purposive sampling technique. The instruments for data collection were biology teachers’ ICT competence questionnaire (BTICTCQ) and biology teachers’ ICT competence practical test (BTICTCPT). Three experts validated the instruments. They were trial tested to ascertain its reliability using Cronbach Alpha, BTICTCQ gave a reliability coefficient value of 0.83 while BTICTCPT gave a reliability coefficient value of 0.88. The instruments were administered through direct delivery approach by the researchers and six research assistants. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and t-test to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels. The study revealed among others that there is a significant difference between the assumed and actual mean ICT competences of biology teachers in demonstrating basic ICT tasks and age is a significant factor on actual mean ICT competence of secondary school biology teachers. The study concluded that secondary school biology teachers in Anambra do not possess the required ICT competence to use ICT facilities to teach biology concepts. The study recommended among others that practicing biology teachers should enrol in in-service training programme on ICT to update their competences in its use in teaching and the education/teacher training institutions should make sure that pre-service biology teachers possess the required competency before graduation.</em></p> J. N. Ugbaja S. O. C. Okeke Copyright (c) 2020 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 3 2 211 221