JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN EDUCATION 2022-12-17T16:37:26+01:00 Dr. Oby Ikwuka Open Journal Systems <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The Journal of Theoretical and Empirical Studies in Education is a peer-reviewed, open-access publication of the Department of Educational Foundations, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. The journal, from 2021, is published annually in two volumes. It is aimed at publishing quality papers that have the capacity to inform policy both nationally and internationally. The editorial board welcomes well researched theoretical and empirical papers, which are of good quality and with elements of novelty ideas in all aspects of education.</span></span></p> Preliminary Page 2022-12-16T08:47:05+01:00 Dr. Oby Ikwuka <p><strong>Editorial</strong><br>The Journal of Theoretical and Empirical Studies in Education (JTESE),<br>belongs to the Department of Educational Foundations Nnamdi Azikiwe<br>University, Awka. It publishes well-researched theoretical and empirical<br>studies in all aspects of Education, hence it is an important source of academic<br>information. We assure all readers of this journal of highly investigated work<br>in education.<br>The seventh edition of the journal contains sixteen articles that have been<br>rigorously peer-reviewed. We believe that our readers will find this edition very<br>interesting and educative. The Editorial Board acknowledges with thanks all<br>the efforts of the team of editors, the reviewers, the contributors, and others<br>who contributed towards making this edition a success.<br><strong>Dr. Oby Ikwuka</strong><br>The Editor-in- Chief<br>Department of Educational Foundations<br>Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria<br>E-mail:</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS ENTRY RATE AND INTERNAL EFFICIENCY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA 2022-12-16T09:21:11+01:00 B.N. Egwunatum Akpotu, N.E. N.N.C Samuel <p>This study determined the entry rate of students into Junior Secondary School (JSS1) and the<br>internal efficiency of public secondary schools in Delta State. Entry rate examines the<br>percentage of enrolee in JSS1 to the population of 12years who ought to be in school.<br>However, internal efficiency evaluates the effective and productive output produced from the<br>school system through the utilization of scarce resources introduced as input. The study<br>employed the retrospective review on the trend of enrolment in public secondary schools in<br>Delta State from 2005 to 2014 to ascertain the enrolment growth rate (EGR) for the period.<br>To assess the factors that influence internal efficiency in public secondary schools, the simple<br>random sampling technique was employed to select 44 schools (10%) from a population of<br>440 across the state. Retrieved completed questionnaires were analysed using statistical<br>equations, to compute entry rate. Results obtained revealed that EGR has an undulating trend<br>with an average Enrolment Growth Rate (AEGR) of 7.4% while the entry rate progressively<br>increased annually with an Average Entry Rate (AER) of 96%. Reliability test result of<br>Cronbach Alpha and Guttman Split-Half coefficients were 0.98 and 0.98 respectively. The<br>grand mean of 3.97 from the analysis of the questionnaire corroborated the problems<br>associated with pedagogical activities such as; poor school attendance by learners, poor<br>socio-economic background of learners and lack of recommended textbooks by learners.<br>Consequently, the study recommends construction of more classroom blocks to accommodate<br>the ever-growing population as indicated by the entry rate, provision of recommended<br>textbooks by government, and periodic employment to improve ward’s parent economic<br>standing. These would in no small measure improve the teaching and learning process in all<br>public secondary schools in Delta State.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS AS PREDICTORS OF RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA’S SOUTHEAST 2022-12-16T15:36:41+01:00 Victor C. Nwasor, PhD Gabriel Chidi Unachukwu, PhD <p>The study investigated the relationship between behavioural disorders and risky sexual<br>behaviour among undergraduate university students in South East, Nigeria. The study was<br>guided by seven null hypotheses, which were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The research<br>design utilized in the study was correlation design. The population of the study comprised<br>169,000 regular students in the 10 public universities in South East Nigeria. The study sample<br>comprised 1,200 regular undergraduates obtained through simple random sampling from six<br>public universities in three out of the five states that constitute the South East. Three selfreport instruments: the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Identification Questionnaire<br>(ADHDIQ), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Identification Questionnaire (OCDIQ), and the<br>Undergraduates’ Risky Sexual Behaviour Questionnaire (URSBQ) were used in collecting<br>data. These instruments were validated by three experts. Cronbach Alpha statistics was used<br>in determining the reliability index of the ADHDIQ (0.88) and OCDIQ (0.75), both of which<br>sought non-categorical data, while Kuder-Richardson 20 statistic was used in determining<br>the reliability index of the URSBQ (0.81), which sought categorical data. The research<br>questions were answered using Point Biserial Correlation, while six null hypotheses were<br>tested using multiple linear regression Point Biserial Correlation at 0.05 level of significance.<br>The seventh null hypothesis was tested using multiple linear regression analysis at 0.05 level<br>of significance. Findings indicated that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) had<br>non-significant low positive relationship with early sexual debut, and had a non-significant<br>low negative relationship with random sexual activity and disregard for protection during sex<br>(subscales of risky sexual behaviour). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was found to<br>have significant low negative relationship with the three subscales of Risky Sexual Behaviour<br>(RSB). Both behavioural disorders contributed 6.70 percent of the variations in the responses<br>on risky sexual behaviour, therefore were unable to predict RSB among university students in<br>South East, Nigeria. The multiple linear regression analysis indicated (R = .067; R2 = .004;<br>F = 1.515) that the predictor variable (behavioural disorders) contributed only 0.4 percent<br>in explaining the variances in response. Therefore, the study concluded that behavioural<br>disorders do not significantly predict risky behaviour among university students in South East,<br>Nigeria. The study recommended among others, that government should populate counseling<br>units of public universities with persons that possess behaviour management skills, and that<br>sex education should start as early as possible in order to inculcate sexual values on time.<br>Suggestions were made for further research.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 EFFECT OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING AS TEACHING METHOD ON SELF- CONFIDENCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL GOVERNMENT STUDENTS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA 2022-12-16T17:33:18+01:00 Ohadiugha Marian N. (Ph.D.) <p>The study was conducted to determine the effect of self-directed learning as a teaching method<br>on self-confidence among senior secondary school students in the Federal Capital Territory<br>(FCT), Nigeria. A true experimental research design was adopted for the study. The<br>population of the study comprised all senior secondary school government students in FCT<br>Abuja. While the sample size of the study comprised 90 senior secondary school government<br>(SSS 2) students were drawn from three Area Councils in FCT using multistage sampling<br>techniques. Data was collected for the study using a Students Self-confidence Rating Scale<br>(SSCRS) developed by the researchers. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided<br>the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the two research questions while<br>a t-test was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed<br>among others that the mean self-confidence rating scores of senior secondary school<br>government (SSS 2) students taught using self-directed learning as a teaching method were<br>higher than those taught using the conventional (lecture) method and was statistically<br>significant in favour of self-directed learning. Though the group taught using the conventional<br>method gained, slightly higher mean self-confidence score than the control group but was not<br>significant at 0.05 significance level. It was therefore concluded that the teaching method has<br>an effect on theself–confidence of the learner. Based on the findings of the study it was<br>recommended among others that proactive action such as organizing symposium for teachers<br>and campaign on how to boost learners’ self-confidence and effect of teaching methods of<br>teaching on the self-confidence of the learner should be initiated by the Ministry of Education<br>and other stakeholders in education.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2022 FEMALE LDL CHOLESTEROL RESPONSE TO BRISK WALKING EXERCISE AND JOGGING EXERCISE 2022-12-16T17:46:15+01:00 Odo, Edward Odogbu G.O Emeahara (PhD) Ochiaka, Raphael E. Ogu, Charlse Okey (PhD)4 <p>The purpose of this study was to establish the response to brisk walking and jogging of<br>volunteered female university staff Low density lipoprotein (LDL-c). The area of this study<br>was Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, and Abia State, Nigeria. The age<br>range of the regular non academic staff was 35–60 years. As a result of the request for free<br>lipid profile test, the population of the study was 67 volunteers. Questionnaire that contained<br>both Inclusion and exclusion criteria were given to the volunteered staff and their response<br>collated. Thereafter, 54 Non-academic staff (15 male and 39 female) met the inclusion<br>criteria. The 39 female subjects for the study were randomly sampled into unequal three<br>groups- Brisk walking group 13 females, Jogging group 8 females, and Control group 18<br>females. Data were collected using Lipid and Risk Identification Questionnaire (LRIQ) and<br>Infrared vein viewer, Needles and Syringes, tourniquet for pre and post exercise measurement<br>of LDL-c. The hypothesis was tested using ANOVA. Findings of this study showed that after<br>the treatment the female Non-academic staff in the Brisk Walking group had more mean loss<br>than females in Jogging group with a significant difference. Exercise of about 50-60 minutes<br>per day could lead to significant depletion in LDL-c levels.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU’S SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY: RELEVANCE AND APPLICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF PEACE-BUILDING IN NIGERIA 2022-12-16T17:56:36+01:00 Madu, Kenneth O. Rev. Fr. Dr. Greg Ekeh Dr. Onyebuch, G. C. <p>This paper is an exposition on the relevance and application of Rousseau’s social contract<br>theory in the context of peace-building in Nigeria. The aim of the paper was to contribute to<br>the ongoing efforts at enthroning lasting peace in Nigeria, in the light of Rousseau’s social<br>contact theory. Content and conceptual analysis was adopted as a method, while secondary<br>sources were used for data collection. The study was a qualitative one. The paper discussed<br>the concept of peace education, peace-building, Rousseau’s social contract theory, and<br>relevance of the theory in the context of peace-building in Nigeria. These were critically<br>articulated. Sundry evidence from literature shows that peace education and peace-building<br>are indispensable for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper postulated that<br>Rousseau’s ideas such as mutuality, communal justice and collective security have positively<br>contributed to the shaping of sustainable peace through peace-building. Observations are<br>that in Nigerian context, lack of teamwork in the spirit of mutuality, lack of social justice,<br>flagrant neglect of collective security, selfishness among the leaders, foreign interventions,<br>ethnic and religious bigotry among others, are some of the factors that affect peace-building<br>adversely. It was, therefore, concluded that Rousseau’s social contract theory, which<br>emphasizes teamwork, social justice, mutual agreement and collective interest, is relevant to<br>the Nigerian peace-building process, and so its application will boost the effort. Based on the<br>conclusion, the paper recommended, among others, that Rousseau’s social contract theory<br>be adopted and applied to the process of peace-building in Nigeria, and that the spirit of<br>mutuality should be entrenched in peace-building by peace builders, and that social justice<br>should be practiced for an effective and sustainable peace-building to thrive</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ICT SKILLS AND UTILIZATION OF MOBILE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY AMONG PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN TWO HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA 2022-12-17T15:30:54+01:00 Dr. Ajuzie Ndubuisi Ebeniza IPEMJOSEPHINE@GMAIL.COM Dr.Ipem, J.N IPEMJOSEPHINE@GMAIL.COM <p>This study examined ICT skills and utilization of mobile learning technologies for<br>instructional delivery among pre-service teachers in two higher institutions in South-Eastern<br>Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey<br>design. Population of this study comprised 142 degree students from Alvan Ikoku Federal<br>College of Education and Imo State University, Owerri. Therefore the 62 students at the 3rd<br>year degree level from School of Education, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education and<br>80 students at the 3rd year degree level from Faculty of Education, Imo State University,<br>Owerri served as sample for the study. A twenty-one item rating scale developed by the<br>researchers titled “ICT Skills and Mobile Learning Technologies for Instructional Delivery<br>(ICTMLTID)” and validated by specialist was used for data collection. The reliability of the<br>instrument was obtained as 0.76 using Cronbach Alpha Statistics. Data were analyzed using<br>mean statistical tool. The level of ICT skills of pre-service teachers in the area investigated is<br>high. Following the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that school<br>authorities should ensure pre-service teachers are being encouraged to maintain high<br>standard in mobile learning through continuous training and retraining.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PHYSICAL EDUCATORS’ EFFORTS TO INCLUDE CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES USING DATA ON ASSESSMENT SCORES IN IN GENERAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS IN ANAMBRA STATE: IMPACT OF GENDER AND EDUCATION QUALIFICATION 2022-12-17T15:40:49+01:00 Okoroafor, Judith Chikamma Prof. Charles Ogu (Ph.D) <p>The study investigated the physical educators’ efforts to include children with disabilities<br>using data on assessment scores in in general physical education class in Anambra State and<br>the impact their gender and education qualification would have on these efforts. One research<br>questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.<br>The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study<br>comprised all the 91 teachers teaching Physical Education at the J.S.S 3 in the 261 public<br>secondary schools in Anambra State. All the 91 teachers were used for the study due to the<br>relatively manageable size of the population. The researchers adapted a research instrument<br>titled ‘‘Liberman Inclusion Rating Scale for Physical Education (LIRSPE)’’. This was used<br>for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability of the<br>instrument was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha which yielded an overall coefficient of<br>0.83. The researchers together with 6 research assistants collected data for the study and a<br>78% return rate was recorded. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the<br>research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. The major findings of the<br>study revealed that physical educators made efforts to include children with disabilities using<br>assessment scores in general physical education class. It was also reported that the<br>professional and non-professional physical educators differ significantly in their efforts to<br>include children with disabilities using assessment scores in general physical education class.<br>Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the Ministry of Education<br>should organize annual in-service training for physical education teachers’ especially nonprofessional ones to upgrade their skills and knowledge on current trends of including<br>children with disabilities using assessment scores in their class.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF ONLINE LEARNING AMIDST COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA 2022-12-17T16:37:26+01:00 Obiageli Ifeoma Ikwuka Ph.D Amaka Charity Okoye Ph.D Ogechi Nkemjika Victoria Chidiebele Udenwa Chinyere Celina Okoye Richard Azukaego Okoh1 <p>Despite the increasing rate of online learning the world over, it seems that Nnamdi Azikiwe<br>University, Awka is yet to fully integrate online learning in adherence to the Covid-19<br>pandemic protocols. Since students are regarded as the pivot around which teaching-learning<br>context revolves, it is expedient to elicit their views about this form of education. It is in view<br>of the foregoing that the researchers sought to examine undergraduate students’ perception<br>of online learning amidst Covid-19 pandemic in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. A survey<br>research design was adopted for the study. The population of study comprised all 24,958<br>(14,304 Regular and 10,654 CEP) undergraduate students in Nnamdi Azikiwe University,<br>Awka according to Academic Planning Unit of the University (2021). The sample for the study<br>comprised 360 (194 Regular and 166 CEP) undergraduate students in Nnamdi Azikiwe<br>University, Awka obtained using simple random sampling, purposive sampling and<br>disproportionate sampling techniques. The instrument that was used for data collection was<br>the “Students’ Perception of Online Learning Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic Questionnaire”<br>(SPOLACPQ)’’. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability of the<br>instrument was tested using Cronbach Alpha which gave a reliability co-efficient of 0.76. The<br>indication of the findings of the study is that majority of regular undergraduate students<br>perceive that data package for online learning is unaffordable and that their academic<br>progress is difficult to monitor with online learning among others. It was further revealed<br>that the majority of CEP perceive that online learning prevents them from physically<br>interacting with their classmates on academic tasks and reduces their access to their<br>lecturers’ input in their classwork among others. Based on the findings of the study, it was<br>recommended that curriculum planners should consider the review of the curriculum contents<br>to capture online learning during and after Covid-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-09-01T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021