https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/issue/feed Unizik Journal of Technology, Production and Mechanical Systems 2024-07-12T02:16:36+01:00 Engr. Christian Emeka Okafor PhD [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Unizik Journal of Technology, Production and Mechanical Systems (UJTPMS) </span></span></span></em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal published by the </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">UJTPMS</span></span></span></em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is devoted to the promotion of excellence in theoretical and applied science research and the dissemination of research reports as tools for learning. The aim of the </span></span></span><em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">UJTPMS</span></span></span></em><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> is to provide an international forum for the publication of full-length articles, reviews and short communications that contribute to the understanding of the main and related areas of technology, production and mechanical systems. </span></span></span></p> <p align="left"> </p> https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/article/view/2997 Optimum proportion of starch binder and palm kernel shell hybrid additive in the formation of sawdust based composite briquette 2024-01-25T23:52:16+01:00 Seun Oyelami [email protected] Wasiu Oyediran Adedeji [email protected] Franscis Olukunle Ademokoya [email protected] Abideen Temitayo Oyewo [email protected] Kehinde Adenike Oyewole [email protected] Babajide Joshua Ojerinde [email protected] Olakunle Olukayode [email protected] <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Briquette making involves collection of combustible materials not useable because of their low density and compressing them into solid fuel of convenient shape. Briquette has lower ash content, high heat and calorific value than most fuels. Thus, this study investigated 200g of pure sawdust and five other briquettes of percentage by mass ratios of sawdust to palm kernel shell of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50, were made dry and without binder. The briquettes were tested for crushing strength and calorific value. The best of the briquettes which is 70:30 percentages was picked and its composition was used to make another set of five briquettes but with starch of masses 10g, 20g, 30g, 40g and 50g respectively.&nbsp; The briquettes with starch content were tested for calorific value only.&nbsp; Consequently, the data obtained from the results showed that addition of palm kernel shell increases the calorific value from 15,668KJ/kg when there was no palm kernel shell addition to 18,397kJ/kg at palm kernel shell addition up to 30% beyond which the calorific value decreases. However, addition of starch binder to the briquette raised the calorific value to 20,377kJ/kg when the starch addition was up to 4.8% beyond which the calorific value decreases. Result shows that 4.8% of starch addition was insufficient for the composite briquette. However, 13% of starch binder briquette a calorific value of 20,005kJ/kg is considered the best. 13% of starch binder briquette could be developed for usage in boiler, heating purpose and gasification plants to replace conventional fuel sources.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-01-25T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/article/view/2998 Comparative Analysis: Heat flow & drying performance in a dual Electric/gas convective dryer 2024-01-26T00:40:55+01:00 Okeke John Chikaelo [email protected] Ugochukwu Chuka Okonkwo [email protected] Nwadike Chinagorom Emmanuel [email protected] Nwanonobi Benjamin Chibuzo [email protected] <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>This study scrutinizes convective dryers at 45°C and 60°C, comparing the impact of electric and gas heat sources on heat flow and drying performance. By analyzing temperature changes within dryer compartments, we uncovered unique behaviors for each heat source. Gas showed faster moisture reduction compared to electric, achieving 9.81%wb and 9.39%wb at 45°C and 60°C in 33 and 21 hours, respectively, compared to 10.08%wb and 10.22%wb in 34 and 22 hours for electric. Effective diffusivity increased from 8.792 ×10<sup>-8</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s to 1.22 ×10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s for electric and 8.9×10<sup>-8</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s to 1.42×10<sup>-7</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s for gas. Activation energy was 39.08kj/mol for electric and 42.59kj/mol for gas. The Page model demonstrated high accuracy (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9968, RMSE = 0.0132, X<sup>2</sup> = 0.0002) across temperatures and heat sources for drying Clarias gariepinus. The findings suggest practical implications for industrial drying processes, highlighting the potential advantages of gas-based drying systems for faster and more efficient drying operations. Further exploration of these findings could lead to optimized drying methodologies, potentially enhancing efficiency in various drying applications within the industry.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-01-25T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/article/view/3591 Effects of nanoparticles volume fractions on the viscosity of nanofluids prepared from palm kernel shell nanoparticles 2024-04-16T02:12:15+01:00 Okafor A. A [email protected] Dara J. E [email protected] Okafor L. U [email protected] Ilechukwu A. E [email protected] Ezenwa N. O [email protected] <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In this research, palm kernel shell nanoparticles were produced for nanofluid application and the viscosity of the produced nanofluids was measured. The size of the nanoparticles fabricated is 100nm diameter. This paper presents results on the synthesis of palm kernel shell bio-material to obtain nanoparticles and subsequently produced nanofluids. Nanofluids were prepared using two-step method by dispersing or pouring palm kernel shell- nanoparticles into the base fluid (a binary mixture of Ethylene Glycol (EG) and deionised water (base fluid) in a ratio of 50:50) .An ultrasonic sonicator was used to ensure proper mixtures of different volume fractions (0.3%, 0.6 %, 0.9 % 1.2 % and 1.5%) of palm kernel shell nanoparticles into base fluid (a binary mixture of Ethylene Glycol (EG) and deionised water). A Vibro Viscometer machine (SV-10) was used to measure the viscosity of the prepared nanofluids more easily. For minimum and maximum volume fractions of palm kernel shell nanoparticles (0.3% and 1.5%) in the base fluid, the viscosity was found to be 26 mPa.s and 43 mPa.s, which increases slightly with an increase of particle volume fraction and decreases as the temperature increases. The experimental results show a maximum of 23% increasing of viscosity for 1.5% volume fraction of nanofluids as compared with the base fluid.&nbsp; From the experimental study on prepared nanofluids conducted, results show that all the values of viscosities at different volume fractions of the prepared nanofluids were found to be higher than the values of the base fluids (a binary mixture of Ethylene Glycol (EG) and deionised water). The experiments were conducted at varying temperature range (300C through 700C).</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-04-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Unizik Journal of Technology, Production and Mechanical Systems https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/article/view/3859 Production of Ceiling Board from Agricultural Wastes Products (Breadfruit Seed Coats and Rice Husk) using Epoxy Resin as Binder 2024-06-13T20:32:07+01:00 Emmanuel Chinagorom Nwadike [email protected] Echezona Nnaemeka Obika [email protected] <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>This study focused on the sustainable utilization of Breadfruit Seed (BFS) and Rice Husk (RHK) fibres as reinforcements for Epoxy Resin (EPR) matrices. The methodology encompassed the collection and preparation of RHK and BFS, culminating in the production of composite ceiling boards. Through a process involving washing, drying, and chemical treatment, impurities were extracted and binding properties with epoxy resin were enhanced. The fabrication of mild steel molds and spacers ensured precision in casting, while careful consideration was given to the resin-to-hardener ratio in EPR preparation. Emphasis was placed on achieving uniformity and structural integrity in the composite materials during production. Analysis of composite densities revealed a narrow range (5.81-7.04 g/cm³), highlighting their lightweight characteristics. Water absorption tests revealed varying capacities influenced by composition, with lower epoxy resin content compositions exhibiting higher absorption rates. Additionally, thickness swelling results showed the significant impact of composition variations on dimensional stability, highlighting the necessity for thorough material formulation. Moreover, employing the optimization tool yielded an optimal composition of 14.667 g of RHK, 38.665 g of BFS, and 12.653 g of EPR, resulting in a ceiling board with a density of 6.001 g/cm³, thickness swell of 9.81%, and water absorption of 4.016%. This study illuminates the potential of BFS and RHK as sustainable reinforcements for EPR matrices, providing valuable insights for the advancement of eco-friendly composite materials.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-06-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Unizik Journal of Technology, Production and Mechanical Systems https://journals.unizik.edu.ng/ujtpms/article/view/4008 Design and production of bitter leaf washing machine for small and medium scale bitter leaf processing 2024-07-12T02:16:36+01:00 Okolie P. C. [email protected] Ezenwa O. N. [email protected] Nnakwo K. C. [email protected] Wogu S. N. [email protected] <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Bitter leaf has been proven to be one of the most sort after edible leaves, especially within the sub-Sahara Africa due to its medicinal values. However the process of removing the bitter taste before use is tasking. This work was geared towards addressing this challenges. The work designed and produced a bitter leaf washing machine for small and medium scale bitter leaf processing. The machine consist majorly of the washing chamber, washing drum and an electric motor. The machine was powered with 1.5 hp electric motor. The machine has the capacity of 23kg/hour and 18kg/hour, for washing fresh and shredded bitter leaves respectively. It also has a throughput capacities of 80.6 % and 82.6 % for fresh and shredded bitter leaves respectively. The washing process reduced the bitter leaves to an average sizes of 40 – 50 mm. Hence, it is recommended that leaves be allowed to shred after plucking before washing. The throughput and even efficiencies obtained shows that there lesser loss of materials while washing shredded bitter leaves, compared to washing fresh leaves. The machine was produced with locally sourced materials, thereby making it cost effective. The machine is therefore recommended for small and medium scale bitter leaf processing.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Unizik Journal of Technology, Production and Mechanical Systems