Journal of Biomedical Investigation <p>The <strong><em>Journal of Biomedical Investigation</em></strong><strong> (JBI) </strong>is a publication of the Biomedical Research Association of Nigeria (BRAN) of the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The journal seeks to promote interdisciplinary research across all Biomedical Sciences. It publishes original articles, case studies, reviews and short communications in the field of medical sciences, clinical laboratory and experimental medicine, and related fields (Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Physiotherapy, Radiography, and Medical Rehabilitation, Clinical Pharmacy, Psychology, etc).</p> <p>The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the editorial board but of individual authors. The Editorial board of <strong><em>Journal of Biomedical Investigation</em></strong><strong> (JBI) </strong>appreciates those who subscribe to the journal, reviewers and the consulting editors for their contributions.</p> <p>Authors are to send their articles through<a href="mailto:[email protected]"> [email protected]</a></p> en-US [email protected] (Journal of Biomedical Investigation (JBI)) [email protected] (Arthur Ezenwanne) Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF THE INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN A COPPER AND STEEL FACTORY IN NNEWI, ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Waste from industrial processes in modern civilization contributes to water pollution, particularly contaminating groundwater through leaching and industrial effluents.</p> <p><strong>Aim of study</strong>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological and environmental impacts of a copper and steel factory wastes on the physicochemical and microbial qualities of the liquid effluent, water and soil around a copper and steel factory.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A purposive sampling technique was employed for the study. The samples were grouped into 6 groups: 1 (soil samples from the factory), 2 (effluent discharge from factory), 3 (water sample from boreholes in the factory), 4 (water sample from borehole around the factory), 5 (soil sample from non-industrial site) and 6 (water sample from borehole, non-industrial site). Physicochemical properties (turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, total hardness, total dissolved solids) and microbial analysis were determined using known standard methods. Analysis of the results was done using known standard methods and the results were statistically analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that all physicochemical properties were within WHO permissible limit except turbidity levels in factory effluent and boreholes (P &lt; 0.05), suggesting the samples from the factory may contain suspended and colloidal matter, and microorganisms. Microorganisms such <em>as E.coli, Streptococcus Spp., Coliform Spp. </em>and<em> Klebsiella spp</em>. were found in samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The industrial processes of the factory may have polluted the borehole water, thereby making it unsafe for both drinking and domestic use.</p> Igbokwe Adaolisa Millicent, Ugwu Chidiebere Emmanuel, Dike Charles Chijioke, Mbachu Nancy Amara, Maduka Hugh Clifford Chima Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 BARRIERS TO INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL PRACTICE AGAINST COVID-19: A SURVEY OF HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Following the COVID-19 pandemic which was declared a public health emergency all over the world, healthcare workers in Nigeria are still faced with many types of barriers to infection prevention and control practices. The study assessed the barriers to compliance with Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) practices among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) in Nigeria during the early phase of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive design using a non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select seventy-eight (78) HCWs working in different healthcare facilities in Nigeria involving medical and allied health professionals such as nurses/midwives, physiotherapists, radiographers, pharmacists, orthotist, prosthetist, orthopaedic technologists, and public health professionals Analysis of the results was done using known standard methods and the results were statistically analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of the study revealed 78 HCWs participated in this study comprising 44(56.4%) medical doctors, 4(4.1%) Nurses, 17(21.8%) Physiotherapists, 5(6.4%) Laboratory scientists, and 8(10.4%) others. Thirty-nine (50.0%) of the participants found overcrowding/understaffing as one of the major barriers to IPC, 37(47.4%) indicated less commitment of HCWs to the IPC policies and 35(44.9%) indicated lack of water as the major barrier to IPC practice. Limitation of personal protective equipment such as face masks was seen as a barrier to compliance in 17(21.8%) of participants and the unavailability of alcohol-based hand rubs was seen as a barrier by 33(42.3%) of participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Several factors were identified as constituting varying degrees and levels of barriers to IPC practices following COVID-19 in Nigeria. There is a need for the government, policymakers, the leadership of private healthcare facilities, and Healthcare workers to establish an innovative, effective, and efficient system to address barriers to IPC practices which will help to reduce the risk and spread of COVID-19 in healthcare settings.</p> AKINTAYO Niyi David, ONISILE Deborah Foluke, OKAFOR Anita C, OKE Kayode I Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE ON THE ROLE OF PHYSIOTHERAPY IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AMONG OTHER HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is designed to ensure that continuous and comprehensive care is delivered to patients by highly trained staff and should include both clinically oriented and design based multi- professional team members.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study set in South East Nigerian States, was therefore aimed to determine the knowledge and attitude of the role of physiotherapy in the ICU among other HCPs in South East Nigeria; and the influence of selected socio-demographic profile of the participants on the constructs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional survey involving Sixty (60) conveniently sampled HCPs working in the ICU who consented and participated. The participants' socio-demographic variables were obtained and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the role of physiotherapy in ICU among other HCPs in south east Nigeria. The obtained data were summarized using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages, mean, and standard deviation, while inferential statistics of Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test, and Spearman-rank correlation were used to analyze data with the alpha set at &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The majority of the participants (66.6%) had an acceptable level of knowledge, while all the participants (100%) had a positive attitude. No significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitude (rho=0.026, P=0.844). Age had a significant influence on attitude (P =0.003), but not on knowledge (P = 0.208). Gender did not significantly influence knowledge (P= 0.127) and attitude (P =0.208). Educational qualification had no significant influence on knowledge (P=0.212) and attitude (P =0.05). Profession significantly influenced attitude (P =0.04) but not knowledge (P=0.383). The clinical experience had a significant influence on attitude (P &lt;0.0001) but not on knowledge (P=0.594).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Health Care Professionals working in ICU had an acceptable level of knowledge and a positive attitude regarding physiotherapy involvement in the ICU.</p> Arinze Christian Okonkwo, Cynthia Ogbonna, Joseph O. Umunnah, Uche Chukwuemeka Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BROUGHT IN DEAD CASES: A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The Accident and Emergency unit is often the main entry point to hospitals for unexpected diseases, even though no medical care can be provided to Brought In Dead (BID) cases upon arrival. However, valuable information can be deduced from forensic investigations and analysis. Despite a life expectancy of 53 years and civil unrest in North-Eastern Nigeria, there is a lack of studies on BID in the region.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: This research aimed to evaluate the frequency, age, and sex distribution, as well as clinical conditions associated with BID cases at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Accident and Emergency Unit of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Ethical approval was obtained, and data collection included all BID cases registered between January 2018 and December 2020. The data was summarized using frequency and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 955 deaths recorded during the study period, 204 cases (21.3%) were BID. The BID cases consisted of 136 males (66.7%) and 68 females (33.3%), with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. The age range of BID cases varied from 0-18 to above 75 years, with the highest frequency observed in the age range of 38-56 years. The most common known clinical conditions associated with BID cases were bleeding from gunshot, cardiopulmonary arrest, chronic kidney disease, and severe malaria. Male BID cases were commonly associated with cardiopulmonary arrest, while female BID cases were associated with cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study provided valuable insights into BID cases at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The findings can guide strategies to mitigate BID occurrences and improve health-seeking behavior, especially among young adults.</p> Hassan Musa Chiwar, Abba Bukar Zarami, Aksavdwa Isaac Agyigra, Haruna Asura Ngadda, Umaru Hamidu Pindiga, Hayatu Umar Bulama, Modu Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Histological Changes In The Liver Of The Adult Wistar Rat Following Exposure To Cement Dust <p><strong>Background</strong>: The Liver regulates many important metabolic functions, and any injury causes distortion of these metabolic functions.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study investigated the histological changes in the liver of Wistar rats following exposure to cement dust.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: 24 Wistar rats weighing between 250g and 280g were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats per group. Group A rats were placed in a cement dust free environment while Group B-D rats were exposed to various concentration of cement dust dispersed from 5g, 10g and 20g of cement respectively. The weights of the rats were taken weekly and the difference between them and the previous weights were noted. At the end of the 30day exposure, the animals were euthanized under chloroform anaesthesia and the liver was harvested and processed for histological examination. The obtained data analyzed using the paired t-test, with level of significance set at &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The histological sections of the liver of rats in Group A showed normal histoarchitecture of hepatocytes radiating from the central vein. There were observable histological variations in the liver histoarchitecture of the exposed rats (Group B-D) which include lymphocytic infiltration around the portal vein and in patches within the hepatic tissue and congestion of the sinusoids and portal vessels around the central veins.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was concluded that cement dust has histomorphologic effects on the liver tissue which are capable of compromising the health of the research animals.</p> Ehi-Omosun, Mabel Bilu, Olise, Augustina Nkechi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 PREVALENCE AND CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO FRAILTY AND FALLS AMONG COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER ADULTS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Frailty and falls are becoming more important health issues as the population ages. The lack of information and understanding about falls and frailty limits the benefits of general care for the elderly. The study investigated the prevalence and factors contributing to falls and frailty in North[1]Central Nigerian communities.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study of 494 older adults aged 60-110 years, who were mostly Tiv residing in Benue State, Nigeria. The Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) scale was used to assess their frailty status, and information regarding falls (two or more times) over the past year was collected. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine factors that increased frailty and falls in older adults.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 494 older adults with mean age, 76.411.23 years participated in the study. Frailty and falls were reported to be prevalent in 62.9% and 33.2% of participants, respectively. The results of the study further indicated that the prevalence of both frailty and falls was higher in those who were older (≥85 years) and those without formal education. The risk of falling (odds ratio = 0.51; 95%CI: 0.31 to 0.86) and frailty (odds ratio = 0.39; 95%CI: 0.22 to 0.69) were also significantly lower in males as compared to females. Frailty and falls were also more prevalent in smokers and those with poor functional status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Among older rural residents, frailty and falls are common, especially among women, smokers, and those with poor physical health. The aging population may require lifestyle interventions because of frailty and falls.</p> Idoo Womboh, Auwal Abdullahi, Jibril Mohammed, Adedapo Wasiu Awotidebe Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL AMBIENT RADON GAS INHALATION HAZARDS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AND STAFF OF A MEDICAL SCHOOL IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Radon is a noble radioactive gas considered as one a significant ambient indoor air pollutant and eminently associated with lung carcinoma. There is paucity of research on knowledge and awareness of ambient inhalation of radon gas and associated potential radiological hazards among health workers.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed at assessing the awareness of potential ambient radon gas inhalation hazards among undergraduate students and staff of students and staff of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study involved students and staff of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, using a questionnaire. A 20-item semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 550 participants (undergraduate students, academic staff and non-academic staff). Information on demographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge of radon gas and radiological effects hazards were collected. The obtained data were summarized using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Majority of the participants were female 300 (54%). Most of the respondents 415 (75.5%) had no knowledge of Radon gas and have not even heard about it before this study. Only respondents 135 (24.5%) had knowledge of Radon gas before. Most of the respondents 448 (81.5%) were not aware that Radon gas is ionizing radiation of natural origin. Most participants 430 (78.2%) were not aware that Radon gas can cause serious health hazards to the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and can potentially cause lung cancer to the general population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Poor knowledge and awareness of ambient Radon gas and associated potential health hazards due to inhalation were eminent among students and staff of the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University.</p> Nwodo Victor Kelechi, Ezenma Innocent Chinweike, Geofery Luntsi, Abubakar Mathew Garbar, Nwodo Maryrose Chicheokwu, Chiegwu Hyacent Uche, Ezeigwe Chijioke Ogomegbuam, Nwodo Charles Ugochukwu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CAUTI-BUNDLES IN PATIENTS' CARE AMONG NURSES IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HEALTH FACILITY <p><strong>Background</strong>: Between 15-25% of hospitalized patients receive urinary catheters during their hospital stay, predisposing majority to catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Owing to the high prevalence of CAUTI globally, CAUTI-Bundle was introduced and adopted as a gold standard of care which should be utilized by nurses while providing care to admitted patients on catheter.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study assessed the knowledge and implementation of CAUTI-Bundles in patients care among nurses in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 466 registered nurses purposively recruited from Federal Medical Centre Asaba. Data were collected using a pretested researchers' developed questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and Chi-square at value less than 0.05 level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: More than half of the nurses 251(66.4%) had adequate knowledge about the use of CAUTI bundles in patients' care while only 175(46.2%) implemented and sparingly adhered to the CAUTI-Bundle protocol while caring for the patients on catheter. There was a significant association between years of experience, cadre (p &lt; 0.05) and knowledge of CAUTI-Bundle.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although more than half of the participants had adequate knowledge about CAUTI-Bundles, its implementation was suboptimal. As CAUTI continues to pose a challenge to hospital safety and quality healthcare of the patients, nurses who are the keystones to CAUTI bundle implementation, need to have better understanding of which, and in what context implementation strategies should be best utilized to ensure reductions in CAUTIs and catheter days of their patients.</p> Odikpo Linda C, Ezike Okwudili Calistus, Onyia Evert .O, Amadi Osinachi Chidinma, Egbuniwe Michel Chiedu, Ada C. Nwaneri, Makata Ngozi .E, Noreen E. Agbapuonwu, Ihudiebube Splendor Chikaodilli, Ojong Idang Neji, Okedo Henriietta Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL VALUES, PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES OF SIX INDIGENOUS NIGERIAN PLANTS <p><strong>Background</strong>: Plants are known to contain minerals and many bioactive compounds which provide several health benefits on consumption.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of present study was to assess the nutritional composition, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of <em>G. kola mesocarp, V. doniana </em>stem, fruit and leaf<em>, L. aculeate </em>leaf and<em> L. inermis </em>leaf<em>, C. ferruginea </em>fruit and<em> P. soyauxii </em>stem<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Fully automated Soxhlet solvent extraction technique was used using ethanol and methanol. Solvent-Solvent fractionation was also done to obtain purer form of the plants extracts using Ethylacetate, N-hexane and N-butanol. Standard methods were employed in the phytochemical screening, quantitative phenols and flavonoid determination and antioxidant assays (DPPH radical and ascorbic acid were determined). Solutions of ascorbic acid and gallic acid served as positive controls. Data obtained were analysed using paired t-tests and one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as Pearson Correlation with statistical significance set at &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, carbohydrates and flavonoids were detected in the extracts of studied plants. <em>V. doniana</em> leaves had the highest phenolic content (2684.47±55.62 mg/g) in terms of gallic acid equivalents (GAE). From all extracts assayed, <em>V. doniana</em> leaf extract was observed to have the highest antioxidant activity with IC value 50 of 94.48.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The result of this investigation suggests that these plants could be used as wild edible plants, and the natural antioxidants be incorporated as functional ingredients of food.</p> Olise Nkechi Augustina, Enweani-Nwokelo Ifeoma Bessie Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS TREATED IN MAJOR TERTIARY/SECONDARY HOSPITALS IN RIVERS STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA. <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the protozoan, opportunistic infections that are common in HIV positive patients and is characterized by gastroenteritis marked with spurious diarrhea that may lead to death if not treated.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objectives</strong>: To evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis in HIV positive patients undergoing treatment at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital(UPTH) and Zonal Hospital Ahoada (ZHA), Rivers State, Southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: 250 HIV positive patients were randomly recruited for the study consisting of 101 males and 149 females. Demographic data/information was obtained using a well-structured self –administered questionnaire. Stool samples were collected from each of the patients by standard methods. Modified Ziehl Neelsen (MZN) technique was employed to stain thick stool smears which were microscopically examined under high power magnification for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species ocysts.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of the 250 samples, 19 were positive giving a prevalent rate of 7.6%. The age group with the highest prevalence (2.4%) was 30-40 years followed by 26-30 years (1.6%). The prevalent rate in females (5.6%) was significantly more than that of males (2%) (P &lt; 0.05). Farmers were significantly more affected (3.2%) than other occupational groups (P&lt; 0.05). Patients whose source of domestic water was bore hole had the highest percentage (89.5%) of infection. Personal hygiene (hand washing) had a significant effect on infection rate. Diarrhea was the most frequent presentation of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendation: </strong>Cryptosporidiosis was prevalent in HIV positive patients who presented in UPTH and ZHA in Rivers State, Southern Nigeria. Strict environmental sanitation and provision of portable water are public health measures recommended to reduce the prevalence of this disease especially in HIV/AIDS patients.</p> Solomon Nwabueze Ukibe, Ifeoma M Ekejindu, Godsplan .U John, Iloduba N. Aghanya, Simon Nkpeh Ushie, Ifeoma S. Anagor, Ngozi .G Uzoewulu, Ugochukwu U. Nwaogwugwu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 TRANSFUSION TRANSMISSIBLE INFECTIONS AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA: ANY CHANGE OVER TIME? <p><strong>Background</strong>: Transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) remains a global issue and great health concern. There is need for continuous monitoring, stringent donor testing and selection to ensure downward trend in the prevalence of TTIs and make progress in blood transfusion safety.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate the changing trend in prevalence of TTIs among blood donors in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This is a retrospective study of results of donor screening within the study period. Relevant data from the donor register were retrieved and entered into Excel spreadsheet after obtaining ethics clearance. These include demographics, donor type and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay results for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis (venereal disease research laboratory). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA[1]20. Chi-square and regression analysis was used to test for associations and the level of significance was set at P-value &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results/Conclusion</strong>: A prevalence rate of 4.8% transfusion-transmissible infections was found amongst the blood donors with prevalence rate of 1.2% for HIV, 1.5% each for HCV and HBsAg, and 1.0% for Syphilis. The trend in prevalence of TTIs, donor type and other demographics remains unchanged in the. This can be attributed to the deep rooted beliefs, myth, cultural perception and practice of the locales.</p> Ifeoma Clara Ajuba, Simon Nkpeh Ushie, Chisom Nri-Ezedi, Obiageli Onwurah, Ifeyinwa Nwankwo, Chinedu Nnaemeka Ilokanuno Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 SONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF GALLBLADDER SIZE AND MOTILITY AMONG APPARENTLY NORMAL PREGNANT WOMEN IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pregnancy had been associated with a number of physiologic changes which affect many organs and systems, for example, the gastrointestinal system. Gallbladder, an accessory organ of digestion could be predisposed to disorders in pregnancy but he nature and to which extent it could be affected remained unclear.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the gallbladder changes that could occur in pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: A prospective cross-sectional survey design was used to sonographically study 201 pregnant and 27 non-pregnant women who met the inclusion criteria, both in the fasting and post prandial states. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Means of age, BMI, fasting gallbadder volume (FGbV), post prandial gallbladder volume (PGbV), ejection fraction (EjF) were respectively, 29.12 ± 7.52years, 26.00 ± 4.23kg/cm, 26. 10 ± 13.32cm, 13.36 ± 8.59cm and 47.38 ± 17.58%. The means FGbV in pregnant women was 26.12 ± 13.35cm, EjF was 47.41 ± 17.61%. The mean FGbV and EjF in the non– pregnant women was 74.15 ± 28.91cm and 77.58 ± 9.74% respectively. Age showed no statistically significant difference with FGbV and EjF. Statistically significant difference existed between BMI and FGbV but not with EjF. No statistically significant difference existed between FGbV and PGbV. The mean fetal gestational age was 25.81 ± 8.41 weeks, and showed no statistically significant relationship with FGbV or EjF.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Fasting gallbladder volume and gallbladder motility among pregnant women in Anambra state were both reduced.</p> Uchenna Norochukwunso Ezechukwu, Charles Ugwoke Eze, Hyacienth Uche Chiegwu, Emmanuel Emeka Ezugwu Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 CEFTRIAXONE RESISTANCE IN TERTIARY HOSPITAL SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY <p><strong>Background</strong>: Amid the global crisis of antibiotic resistance, including ceftriaxone resistance, physicians continue to prescribe ceftriaxone as an empiric first line treatment for both community acquired and hospital acquired infections. The study aimed at detecting the rate of ceftriaxone resistance to isolated bacteria in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A check list was used to extract information from the Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing records in the Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital, over a period of one year. Information including patient's sex, ward, specimen type, bacteria isolated, and their ceftriaxone susceptibility profile were documented on a proforma. Statistical analysis of the data was done using STATA version 13 statistical package.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 225 isolates were subjected to ceftriaxone sensitivity testing. The prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance in the total bacteria population was 110/225(48.89%), while resistance rates for <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, the commonest pathogens implicated in health-care associated infections were 12/19(63.2%), 19/35(54.3%), 43/81(53.1%), and 13/25(52.0%) respectively. The specimen from which isolated organisms showed the most resistance was wound swabs 33/44(75.0%). There were statistically significant relationships between isolated bacteria and ceftriaxone resistance (P= 0.034), as well as cultured specimen and ceftriaxone resistance (P= 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The rate of ceftriaxone resistance in this setting is high, hence, there is a need to review the antibiogram of several pathogens in the hospital and come up with a new antibiotic for empirical use.</p> Ushie Simon Nkpeh, AGHANYA, Nnaemeka Iloduba, Chinedu Nnaemeka Ilokanuno, UFOAROH Chinyelu Uchenna, Onubogu U.C, Ezeador C.O, AKUJOBI, Comfort Nne Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA ON FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY IN THE ADULT WISTER RAT <p><strong>Background</strong>: Formaldehyde poisoning is the most important cause of respiratory diseases among people with formaldehyde-related occupations such as laboratory scientists, nurses, medical technicians et cetera.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Sansevieria trifasciata</em> on formaldehyde-induced injury in the lungs of the adult Wistar rat.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The 36 adult Wistar rats weighing between 250g and 280g that were used in this research were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats per group. The haematological outcome showed that formaldehyde caused some derangements in haematological parameters especially lymphocytes and basophils, haemoglobin and haematocrit, red blood cells and their indices with associated reticulocytosis. Histologically, severe bronchiolar mucosal ulceration with erosion of the cilia leading to blunting, severe interstitial infiltrates of inflammatory cells and severe vascular ulceration were observed in the rats exposed to formaldehyde only. <em>Sansevieria trifasciata</em> shrunk the local activated immune system and the florid-activated bronchioloalveolar aggregates of the immune system in the <em>Sansevieria trifasciata</em> treated rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Sansevieria trifasciata</em> has ameliorative effects against formaldehyde-induced injury in the lung of Wistar rats and its effect is inversely proportional to dosage. It is more potent at low doses.</p> Ehi-Omosun, Mabel Bilu, Olise, Augustina Nkechi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF EXERCISES AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA <p><strong>Background</strong>: Exercise has been proven to be an effective means of glycemic control. However, the knowledge and the practice of exercises among patients with Type II diabetes mellitus is uncertain.</p> <p><strong>Aim of study</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of exercises for glycemic control among patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional analytical survey was carried out involving 140 (90 females and 50 males) patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. They were recruited from selected hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on the knowledge and pattern of practice of exercises among these patients. Spearman's rank order correlation was used to determine the relationship between selected socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and practice of exercises. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The knowledge of exercise among respondents was good (mean score of 55.45 ± 8.79 out of a maximum score of 72). A good number (72.1%) of the respondents indicated regular practice of exercises. There was a significant correlation between age, level of educational attainment and knowledge and practice of exercise (p&lt; 0.05). There was also a significant correlations between monthly income and practice of exercise (p= 0.001) but there was none between monthly income and knowledge of exercise by the patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There was a high level of knowledge and practice of exercise among patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and these were influenced by their age and level of educational attainment.</p> Happiness Anulika Aweto, Ajepe T.O , Okunlola O.S Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION OF THE IGBO VERSION OF THE RETURN TO WORK ASSESSMENT SCALE (I-RAS) AMONG STROKE SURVIVORS IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>: The Return-to-work Assessment Scale (RAS) questionnaire is an outcome instrument used to measure the physical, psychological and social behavior and response of individuals to returning to work following injury or illness. This instrument has been validated in the English language, though here in Nigeria we have three (3) major languages: Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba.</p> <p><strong>AIM</strong>: The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Igbo version of RAS in order to enhance its use in Igbo speaking population.</p> <p><strong>METHOD</strong>: This study was a cross-sectional survey involving 100 post stroke survivors. The original version of Return-to-work Assessment Scale (ERAS) was translated to Igbo (IRAS) and cross-validated. This Igbo version of RAS (IRAS) was subjected to reliability, validity and internal consistency.</p> <p><strong>RESULT</strong>: The results revealed that 59 (59.0%) were males and 41 (41.0%) females. Internal consistency was high with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86 for Domain 1, 0.86 for Domain 2 and 0.87 for Domain 3. Test-retest reliability analysis gave an ICC of 0.99 (p=0.001) for Domain 1, Domain 2 an ICC of 0.99 (0.001), Domain 3 an ICC of 0.99 (0.001). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) value for Domain 1 was X²=0.69 and that of Bartlett's test of sphericity value was significant (p=0.001); Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for Domain 2 was X²=0.80 and the Bartlett's test of sphericity value was significant (P=0.001); the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy for Domain 3 was X²=0.79 while the Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (p=0.001).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: The Igbo version of the Return-to-work Assessment Scale (IRAS) is a good, reliable and internally consistent tool for assessing readiness to return to work in Igbo stroke survivors.</p> Peter O. Ibikunle, Ezerebo, C. A Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 28 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100