Journal of Current Biomedical Research <p><em>Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR)</em>, a peer-reviewed, open access journal published every two months with six issues in a year. It is a biomedical publication, which provides both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. JCBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that stimulates further investigation of potentially relevant findings as well as studies with negative findings. JCBR publishes original research articles, review articles, case reports, and letter to the Editor.</p> <p> </p> Nnamdi Azikiwe University en-US Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2659-0352 Extarction and charcterization of mucilage from Irvingia gabonensis seeds <p>This study focuses on the extraction and characterization of mucilage from <em>Irvingia gabonensis</em> seeds and its potential uses. The extraction process was carried out using water and the mucilage was characterized using various physicochemical and rheological parameters. All confirmatory tests for mucilage carried out (Molisch, iodine and ruthenium red test) were positive. The outcomes demonstrated that the mucilage had a yield of 52.6 %, a swelling capacity of 88.65 %, hydration capacity of 1.78 and a viscosity of 1.1805 mPa S. This study highlights the importance of utilizing natural resources for sustainable development and provides insights for further research on the potential uses of mucilage from other plant sources.</p> Oluwaseun Orugun Paul Yahaya Mustapha Tijani Zwanden Yahaya Mponan Guga Sophie Anyebe Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1256 1278 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.5 Investigation Of Pro-fertility Actions Of “Female Corrective” Poly-herbal Medicine Formulation Using Female Wister Rat Model <p>Plants contain numerous phytochemical compounds that may be used to cure or prevent diseases. In this study, the pro-fertility actions of “Female corrective” poly-herbal formulation were investigated using female Wister rat model. Phytochemicals, acute toxicities, body weight changes, and antioxidant and female reproductive hormonal studies were carried out. Serum levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were also evaluated. Micro well experiment was used to study the impact of the poly-herbal formulation on reproductive hormones. The phytochemical compounds present in the “Female corrective” were glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids. In the median lethal dose estimation, no mortality nor obvious signs of toxicity were recorded at the dose of 88 mg/kg body weight. At a concentration of 4.4 mg/mL the body weights of the rats were increased in a dose dependent manner; 2.06, 4.11 and 8.22 mL/kg body weight gave changes in body weights of 17.13, 20.00 and 22.44% respectively after 14 days. Antioxidant effects were recorded as increase in serum concentration of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Also, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were increased significantly (p ˂ 0.05) and dose dependently; at the same administered doses, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone were 3.06 ± 0.06, 4.61 ± 0.05 and 5.25 ± 0.09 mIU/mL respectively and that of luteinizing hormone were 1.02 ± 0.10, 1.71 ± 0.23 and 2.08 ± 0.20 mIU/mL respectively. The possible mechanisms of the herbal drug formulation might include antioxidant as well as pro-gonadotropin activities</p> Daniel Ikechukwu Oraekei SONNE IKECHUKWU MBAGWU Brendan Chinedu Anaekwe Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1279 1292 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.6 Secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived endophytic fungus, Pseudopestalotiopsis species investigated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities <p>Attention is being diverted toward the bioprospecting of newer bioactive compounds from marine endophytic fungi. This is because marine fungi have shown a large chemo-diversity of untapped important secondary metabolites needed for drug development. In the present study, the secondary metabolites of a mangrove-derived endophytic fungus <em>Pseudopestalotiopsis species</em> isolated from the root of <em>Rhizophora racemosa</em> were investigated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The fungal isolation, taxonomic identification, fermentation, extraction, and isolation of the fungal secondary metabolites were carried out using standard techniques. The fermentation product was subjected to fractionation. The crude extract and its fractions were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant assays. The active extracts and fractions exhibited good antimicrobial activities against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis,</em> <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em><em>oleaginous</em>, <em>and Candida albicans</em> with MIC values that ranged between 0.06 to 1 mg/mL. The Gram negatives were the most susceptible bacteria while <em>C. albicans</em> was the most susceptible fungi. Moderately low antioxidant activities were recorded in the DPPH and FRAP assays. The chromatographic separation and HPLC analysis of the fungal secondary metabolites yielded compounds: Palitantin (A), Cytosporin D (B), Cytosporin K (C), and Fusarielin (D). These compounds have been previously reported to possess varying pharmacological activities which include antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.<em> Thus, </em>The results of this study show that these compounds may, in part, account for the anti-microbial and antioxidant <em>effect of </em>the root of <em>Rhizophora racemosa </em>ethno medically.</p> Virginia N. Ajah Chukwubuikem Okolo Ugochukwu Okezie Cletus Ukwubile Anita Kelechi Asekunowo Blessing Umeokoli Festus Okoye Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1197 1218 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.2 A Novel Approach on the Sensitivity of Preserved Plasmodium falciparum Positive RDT kits for the Molecular Detection of Pfmdr 1 and Pfcrt Genes in Pregnant Women <p>Storing blood samples for molecular screening have become increasingly difficult due to unstable electricity and high cost of generators fuels. Samples often deteriorate giving false negative upon molecular analysis. This research was aimed at determining the sensitivity of preserved <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> positive RDT kits for the molecular detection of Pfmdr 1 and Pfcrt genes among pregnant women in From February 2020 to May 2020, Sokoto, Nigeria. 200 pregnant patients who visited the hospital for ANC had their blood samples taken, and a questionnaire was given out. To detect <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em>, RDT kits tailored to its monoclonal antibody were utilized. <em>P. falciparum</em> positive Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits were air tightened with nylon and silica-preserved for three months in a closed cabinet. The preserved positive samples were utilized to extract DNA, and the Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt genes' existence was then checked using a PCR procedure. 4 samples tested positive for both genes, suggesting a 21.05 % prevalence, according to the results of the inquiry into the Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes. This study has revealed the sensitivity of preserved RDT kits (with silica) for DNA extraction. Researchers and molecular laboratories should be preserving positive RDT kits meant for DNA extraction and other molecular analysis as it is much easier to preserve and there is no cost involved.</p> Hafiz Abubakar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1247 1255 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.4 Acute and sub-chronic toxicological profile of Musa cavendishii (Musaceae) Lamb peel extracts in New Zealand rabbit <p><em>Musa cavendishii </em>(banana) peel is a waste product of human daily consumable fruit used traditionally in the management of ulceration and scar. This study evaluates the toxic effects of its peel in New-Zealand rabbits after topical administration. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of the peel extracts were carried out in 116 randomly selected rabbits using methods described by Organization of Economic Corporation and Development (OECD) 402 (2017) and 410 (2018), respectively. Changes in body and relative organ weight, hematology, serum liver and renal enzyme were investigated. Vital body organs were also processed for histopathology to observe any alteration from normal architecture. No mortality was observed during the acute toxicity with no changes in body and relative organ weight of the organs tested when compared with the control. After 28 days of topical administration of the extracts, even at the highest dose (1500 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract, the histoarchitexture of the skin’s epidermis and dermis, and other biochemical markers of the rabbits were normal. However, mild adipocyte infiltration, glandular hyperplasia and distortions in the renal parameters were seen in the hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts portions at the highest dose (1500 mg/kg) after 28 days topical administration. The study indicates that <em>M. cavendishii</em> peel is not capable of causing toxic effects in rabbits. However, it’s prolong use at higher doses may result in some harmful effects.</p> AZEEZ RAJI SHEIDU Bilkisu Bello Maiha Mohammed Magaji Garba Abubakar Ahmed Tijani Rabiu Giaze Abdullahi Balarabe Nazifi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1219 1246 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.3 Ocimum Gratissimum essential oil: A review of extraction methods, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological uses and formulation approaches <p><em>Ocimum</em> <em>gratissimum </em>is a plant native to Africa. Its leaves have been used in local dishes over the years, with documented evidence of varying pharmacological uses of its essential oil. This review focuses on the extraction methods, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological uses and formulation approaches of <em>Ocimum</em> <em>gratissimum</em> essential oil. The traditional extraction methods that have been widely used include the solvent, cold press and hydrodistillation methods. However, newer methods such as steam distillation, ultrasound and microwave assisted hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and pressurized hot water extraction methods have not been fully reported. These methods provide more yield of the essential oil compared with the traditional methods and their processes are less laborious. Furthermore, they are often limited to analytical applications as they cannot handle large quantities of samples. The phytochemical constituents of <em>Ocimum</em> <em>gratissimum</em> essential oil vary, based on location of the plant and the time of the season the plant parts were harvested for extraction. The African species have more thymol than eugenol. Other notable constituents are saponins, terpenes and flavonoids in both African species and others. The essential oil of <em>Ocimum</em> <em>gratissimum</em> bears the scent of the plant and other important properties such as protection of the plant from pests and to attract insects for cross-pollination. The essential oil of this plant has been noted to possess various pharmacological properties which explains its use in inflammatory conditions and the treatment of diarrhoeal disease, wound healing and cerebrovascular disorder, amongst others. The essential oil of <em>Ocimum</em> <em>gratissimum</em> has been embedded in gels, cream, silver nanoparticles and nanoemulsion to improve its pharmacological activity and bioavailability. This review article highlights the potentials of the essential oil of this ubiquitous plant as a therapeutic source for the treatment of different tropical diseases.</p> Chidalu Ikeotuonye Emmanuel Uronnachi Calistus Nwakile Anthony Attama Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Current Biomedical Research 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 3 5, September-October 1178 1196 10.54117/jcbr.v3i5.1