INFLUENCE OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON LIBRARIANS JOB PERFORMANCE IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA
Keywords:Librariansâ€™ Job Performance, Training, Development, Academic Libraries, South-South Nigeria
This study sought to investigate the influence of staff training and development on librarians’ job performance in federal university libraries in South- South Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.5 level of significance. The research design was a survey. The population of the study comprised 102 librarians from the six federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. The entire population was studied hence there was no sampling. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean scores. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the two null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that staff training programmes that exist in the university libraries studied include orientation, computer literacy simulation exercise, in-service workshop among others. Whereas the staff development programmes that exist in these libraries were job rotation, seminar, consultancy, publication and research, institutional education, study leave, mentorship/coaching and professional association. The result of the analysis showed that training and development programmes have a positive influence on librarian’s job performance. Based on the findings, the study recommends among others that university libraries in South-South Nigeria should make training and development of their librarians a regular exercise. This will foster professional development and better services in these libraries.
Keywords: Librarians’ Job Performance, Training, Development, Academic Libraries, South-South Nigeria.
University libraries are academic libraries set up by the university solely to support teaching, learning and research in the institution. They support the academic programme of the university through their information resources and facilities. In the acquisition of these information resources, every discipline in the university curriculum is given serious consideration. Services offered by the university libraries include provision of an organized collection of printed or other materials or combination thereof, a staff trained to provide and interpret such materials as required to meet the information, cultural, recreational or educational needs of clientele and the physical facilities necessary to support such a collection, staff, and students (Abubakar, 2016). The university library also provides reference services and all possible information needs for researchers, students, academic staff as well as neighbouring communities. University libraries provide technical service such as book binding, printing, editorial and reprographic services. These services are aimed at ensuring fast and quick accessibility to the available print and non- print information resources to staff and students at all times.
Current advances in information and communication technology which has led to the creation of knowledge based economy and market globalization has consequently made the development of human resources in academic libraries a burning issue. Human resource development is a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn the necessary skills to meet current and future job performance (Desler& Cole, 2013). Librarians acquire, organize, evaluate and disseminate information, providing support to members of the university community including students, researchers and teaching staff. According to Sambe, Esohe and Gomina (2015), a professional librarian applies theory and technology to creation, selection, organization, management, preservation, dissemination and utilization of collections of all formats in the library. Their main role involves facilitating and supporting learning by teaching information retrieval skills to students and staff within classrooms or virtual learning environment. Saka, Abubakar and Abubakar (2014) stated that librarians in Nigerian universities enjoy equal academic status/benefits like their counterparts (faculty members) undertaking teaching and research functions as well as scholarly contributing to knowledge. Librarianship is a user centred profession requiring their practitioners to manage learning resources while keeping the library users’ needs in mind.
The duty of a librarian in a university library includes selecting, developing, cataloguing and classifying library resources. Others include answering researchers’ enquiries, management of staff, (including recruitment, training) and/ or playing supervisory role. Other duties performed by librarians include supporting independent research and learning, assisting readers to use computer equipment, conducting literature search, and providing library resources to users. In Nigeria, one is qualified to become a librarian when he has obtained a degree in Library and Information Science in a recognised university (The Librarian Registration Council of Nigeria, 2010). Librarians are expected to possess strong IT skills, team work and managerial skills, verbal communication skills and familiarity with the use of databases and the Internet. However, these skills can only be well displayed if librarians are exposed to efficient training and development programmes.
Training is a learning process in which employees acquire skills, experience and attitudes that they need in order to perform their job better for the achievement of their organizational goals. According to Amoah-Mensah (2016), training is the formal and modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction and planned experience. Training involves the acquisition and changing skills, knowledge, attitude and social behaviour for the purpose of an occupation or work (Aroge, 2012). Training is the preparation for specific skills which is job or task-oriented, rather than personal. Staff training is a programme that helps employees to learn specific knowledge or skills to improve performance in their current job. A training programme allows an employee to strengthen those skills he needs to improve on his job. Training results are specific. The basic idea behind training is to give the employee the skills required for him to accomplish the requirements of his job. Training is increasingly considered to be a key function in helping university libraries achieve their goals through its staff as it is becoming more generally accepted that there is a correlation between organizational success and investment in training and development.
Staff development is a long term educational process, utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel gain conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Library staff development can be viewed as activities and programmes that help staff members of the library to learn about responsibilities and develop required skills necessary to accomplish institutional and divisional goals of the library. Dutta (2012) define staff development as processes, programmes and activities through which every organization develops, enhances and improves the skills, competences and overall performances of its employees and workers. Development is a long term plan rather than learning tasks that are needed immediately (Kimberlee, 2018). While training focuses on skills and competencies needed to perform employee’s current jobs, development is training of a long term nature which prepares a current employee for future jobs within an organization. Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task at hand but development have a longer term focus. It prepares the staff for future responsibilities in the work place.
Staff development and training programmes help the employee to build confidence in the organization as he sees himself as part of the development process and success of the organization. Staff training and development also helps develop engagement and reinforces institutional goals (Kimberlee, 2018). Efficient training can make an individual staff member feel confident in his or her abilities. Staff training and development can solve a variety of manpower problems which militate against optimal productivity in the institution. These can be summarized as increasing the quality of work and raising morale of personnel, helping to develop new skills, knowledge, understanding for work, using rightly new tools among others.
The importance of training and development programmes in the university libraries cannot be over emphasized. Ifidon and Ifidon (2007) identified the objective of library training and development as: to enable staff to make a more effective contribution to the library’s total effort in its service mission; makes the individual look for satisfaction that goes beyond economic gain; self-pride, self-respect and achievement; prepare the staff for challenge of complex modern technology which require an integration of activities and persons of diverse and specialized competence; enables the library staff to develop a life of their own outside the library; make the staff receptive to change and innovation rather than resistant to them; create a climate where the dignity of employees as human beings, not just as factors contributing to the library’s efficiency is respected; and to prepare the individual for a new, different and higher responsibility.
The university library like any other organization is aimed at achieving goals and objectives set by its parent institution. Attainment of high productivity cannot be achieved if the overall job performance is not enhanced. If a university library wants to achieve the highest degree of job performance, efficient and sufficient staff training and development must be put in place. Performance therefore is the implementation of an action of one’s ability in relation to achieving the quality, quantity, cooperation, dependability and creativity in behaviour of an individual (Ekere, 2012). Performance is considered as the measure of quality of human capital which is held as the key thrust in the organization. As Saka (2013) observed, job performance is the ability to carry out statutory functions which are based on the field of specialization or areas of development as well as organization’s objective. Saka further stated that job performance in library situation is directed towards meeting not only the user’s information needs but also serves as basis or criteria for staff promotion.
The advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has changed the sophistication and pattern of information needs of librarians. This development has made impactful changes in the collection, storage, retrieval, distribution and access process of information. The university library therefore requires librarians to possess a greater variety of skills with which to utilize these modern information and communication technologies to enhance their services and provide adequate resources for the university community. It is imperative that the university administrators must recognize that library staff must be given the opportunities to develop their skills, knowledge and abilities for them to contribute effectively to the fulfilment of the library’s mandate and strategic objectives. Continuous training and development of library staff is a significant factor in encouraging innovation and creativity and ensuring that the library is the information starting point of users (Cobblah, 2015).
No matter the size of a functional academic library as well as the scope and strength of the collection, the library management cannot meet its set goals if librarians are not well-trained and developed. In the work parlance, a number of factors interact to affect both the quantity and quality of workers’ efforts towards their job performance. How acquainted they are with their jobs may affect their performance in their jobs, their relationships with their co-workers, subordinates, clients, physical health, social lives and adjustment. In the long-run these will affect the mental health, happiness and longevity of librarians. Well trained staff are happier and more productive. They tend to perform duties assigned to them with total commitment, concentration and dedication, the end of which is a good result. Employees who are well trained to perform their duties usually are conscientious workers who show pride in the quality and quantity of their work. However, enthusiasm, commitment, pride and productivity are the cornerstone of employee engagement.
Staff training and development programmes in the library include simple orientation programmes, organized visits, seminars and conferences, participatory management, job rotation, internal training programmes, formal professional library education, short courses and so on. Lack of training and development of librarians in university libraries may affect the quality of service, professional career development and this will affect productivity and job performance of librarians. This implies that when librarians are exposed to training and development they will contribute their quota in the teaching, learning and research activities of the university.
Statement of Problem
Today, library services in universities the world over is becoming IT driven. Traditional library services based mainly on print media is no longer in vogue. Both teaching and learning have assumed a new dimension in most academic communities. Changes in the learning and research environment that complement the new technology is also changing the services library provides. These new services include online references, desktop document delivery, automated self-service system, Online Public Access Catalogue and others. Expectedly, university libraries in response to these changes need to institute regular staff training and development to enhance librarian’s job performance.
Clearly, an employee’s productivity has a direct bearing with the level of learning or skill which he has acquired before or during employment. Given that one cannot give what he does not have, a librarian’s contribution towards the growth and success of library service in the university is dependent on the quality of training and development which he has acquired. From the researchers experience in federal university library in Nigeria, it was observed that some library users no longer show interest in using the library. Out of curiosity, the researchers approached some of them to find out the reason. They complained that they no longer receive the attention they desired from library staff especially the librarians. This necessitated the need to embark on this study to investigate whether lack of staff training and development contributed to librarian’s job performance in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to determine the influence of staff training and development on librarian’s job performance in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of staff training and development on librarian’s job performance in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:
1. identify the various staff training programmes that exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria;
2. find out various staff development programmes that exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria;
3. determine the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff training received in federal university libraries in South-South zone;
4. determine the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff development programmes received in federal university libraries in South-South zone.
Scope of the Study
The study focused on the influence of staff training and development on librarian’s job performance in federal university libraries in South–South Nigeria. The study aimed at identifying available staff training and development programmes that exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. It also sought to ascertain the influence of staff training and development on librarians’ job performance in federal universities in South-South Nigeria. The study covered all the federal university libraries in the South-South Nigeria.
The following research questions guided the study:
1. what staff training programmes exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria?
2. what staff development programmes exist in federal university libraries South-South Nigeria?
3. what are the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff training received in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria?
4. what are the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff development programmes received in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria?
The following hypothesis were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance;
1. There is no significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on extent of staff training programmes in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
2. There is no significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on extent of staff development programmes in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Review of Related Literature
A university library is an academic library attached to an institution of higher learning. Akobundu (2013) sees an academic library as a library attached to a higher education institution, which serves basically two complementary purposes; to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research activities of the members of the university community. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA, 2010) describe an academic library as a library associated with a college or university which supports the mission of the institution and the research needs of its faculty, staff and students.
Furthermore, academic libraries work together with other organs of their institution to achieve the mission of their institution through careful selection and provision of relevant information resources as well as in the teaching of information literacy, competencies. Ka (2015) is of the view that academic libraries do not just store books and journals and offer space for student learning, they also provide digitized information through their electronic information resources. Singh (2017) stated that institutions of learning all over the world are laying more emphasis on research. With the help of professional librarians in these libraries who organize their collection accordingly to suit the research needs of the academic community.
Staff training is the teaching or learning activities carried out for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization. Training is the process of equipping the workforce with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude to tackle the job responsibilities (Uzohuo, 2017). Factors such as the impact of new technology, “information explosion; new policies and methods for the organization and provision of information, have made it absolutely essential for librarians to engage actively in staff training if they are to remain professionally up-to-date and, more importantly, if they are to provide services that meet the challenge imposed on them by these new developments. Frost (2018) stated that training programmes is aimed to strengthen those skills which each employee needs to improve, and brings all employees to have similar skills and knowledge to enable them perform their duties. This is important because the frequency of a patron to the library largely depends on the way staff are able to help them to locate information. In addition, staff training refers to programmes that provide staff with information, new skills, or professional development opportunities. This simply means that training is bridging the gap between the current performance and the standard desired performance. Training programmes not only develop staff but also help organizations or institutions to make the best use of their human resources in favour of gaining competitive advantage and achieving optimum performance. Staff training and development activities in the libraries do not only help staff to meet the challenges of providing information to support the academic programmes of the library, but it also helps to sustain the growth of the library which eventually helps to improve upon the individual staff effectiveness (Pan &Hovde, 2010). Staff training programmes available to librarians include orientation, in service workshop, computer training and others. Training in relation to this study is a learning process which empowers the librarian with new skills, knowledge and expertise for the actualisation of the goals of the university library. Types of training for librarians according to Adeniji (2010) include:
In-service training: An in –service programme is a professional training or staff development effort where professionals are trained. Librarians are introduced to an automated library system and to the varieties of software that can be used for the development and management of an automated library. The training will help staff to update their knowledge of professional competence. Akinpelu (2002) define in-service training as an in-house programme for staff in many government and business enterprises. It is widely used for continuing education for teachers as well as librarians, bankers and industrial workers.
On-the-job training: This kind of training includes cross training, which moves the trainee from one department or unit to another. It is an ongoing process, which does not disrupt normal company operations. It minimizes the problems of transfer of learning associated with the other methods of training.
Training Programmes by International Organizations – Some international organizations, according to Adeniji (2010), have an interest in human development programmes in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. They have put in place training programmes that have been of assistance to students and staff of institutions of higher learning. Such organizations include the Macarthur Foundation, African Economic Research Consortium, and Mortenson Centre for International Libraries.
Institutional training programmes – Institutions of higher learning are expected to play a vital role in the training and re-training of professionals and other interested individuals. In many of the academic institutions in this country especially the universities, part-time and full-time courses of study and correspondence or distance learning programmes are offered (Adeniji, 2010). Mathis (2007) earlier stated that many professions require periodic postgraduate study in order to maintain certification for practice. Many universities, polytechnics and colleges offer diploma and degree courses for intending library workers and librarians. According to Adeniji, the Nigerian government has encouraged the establishment of many institutions and organizations specifically for training and development.
On the job training/coaching: This relates to formal training on the job. A worker becomes experienced on the job over time due to modification of job behaviours at the point of training or acquisition of skills. A good example is organizing training on electronic cataloguing for cataloguers.
Induction/orientation: This is carried out for new entrants on the job to make them familiar with the total corporation so as to understand the job.
Vestibule: This is done through industrial attachment for the purpose of skills and technology transfer. It is therefore achieved through placement of an individual within another area of relevant work or organization. The effect is the acquisition of practical and specialized skills.
Formal Training: A practical and theoretical teaching process, which could be done within or outside an organization. When training is carried out inside an organization, it is called an in-house training. Off-house training is carried out in professionalized training areas like: Universities, Polytechnics and Professional Institutes. Library staff may be given the opportunity to obtain higher degrees in various higher institutions.
Whereas staff development is a process of providing employees with new knowledge, skills and abilities in line with the goals and values of the organisation and in relation to the interests and needs of the employees. Staff development is intended to strengthen the capability of an organisation to perform its mission more effectively and efficiently by encouraging and providing for growth of human resources. According to Jacobs and Washington (2010), staff development refers to an integrated set of planned programmes provided over a period of time to help assure that all individuals have the competence necessary to perform to their fullest potential in support of the organisational goals. As a process, employee development encompasses the learning acquired by all individuals in organisations including frontline employees, professionals or managers and can be delivered through a range of approaches including, off-the-job and on-the job training programmes. The overall intent of employee development programmes is to provide a systematic path for increasing the employee’s competence, regardless of whether the increase in competence would be used for doing present or future work (Jacobs & Washington 2010).
Employee development promotes the growth and advancement of individual employees within the organisation in order to enable the organisations to grow (Lee &Hur, 2012). Patrick and Kumar (2012), note that employee development is a continuous effort to upgrade the employee‘s and the organisation‘s skills, abilities and knowledge. Staff development programmes in the library include professional conferences, professional workshops, field trips and others.
The terms training and development are often used interchangeably, even though they have some similarities and differences. It is therefore, necessary to delineate these differences in order to clarify the activities associated with each term and desired outcomes within an organisation. Employee training in particular is associated with on-the-job skills acquired for a particular role, while development on the other hand covers a wide range of activities directed towards the personal and professional growth including coaching and formal education (Mwinyihasan, 2011). Mukhopadhyaya cited in Anyaegbu (2011) outlined the basic difference between training and development as follows; training is a short term process and refers to instruction in technical and mechanical process. It is targeted in most cases for non-managerial personnel and is meant for specific job related purpose.
Development is a long term educational process which is philosophical and imbibes theoretical educational concepts. It is targeted at the managerial personnel cadre. According to Mukhopadhyaya (2009), the purpose of training is to improve productivity, quality, organizational climate, as well as to increase health, safety and enhance personal growth in the organization. Manpower development on the other hand is aimed at improving managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes and increasing skills. The major objective of manpower development is managerial effectiveness through a planned deliberate process of learning. In relation to this study, staff development could be defined as a range of systematically planned activities designed by the library management to provide long term learning opportunities to professionals to equip them with knowledge, skills and attitudes geared towards their career development.
Staff Development Needs in University Libraries
There are various staff development needs across various universities in the world, which Nigeria is included. Mohammad (2013) identifies development programmes that are needed in university libraries to include:
Professional training ; Professional staff of the library are enrolled in different workshops held at the academy to sharpen their skills and improve their knowledge of work environment and technical skills. This initiative helps to build their horizon about specific library activities and inculcate positive attitude towards learning and search strategy. These professional training may include special lectures on professional ethics, professionalism in the work environment and customer satisfaction.
Workshops and conferences : Librarians are sponsored to attend national and international conferences and workshops to widen their professional ethics and values.
Problem solving groups: Individuals perform professional activities during their entire professional career but are normally unaware of novel situations. In this kind of training, library staff (from different sections) are brought together to examine work-related issues and to solve particular problems. Such trainings present problem solving situations.
Buddy system : As a normal practice, colleagues support each other in office work either formally or informally. Group activities promote learning from each other and can take different forms. Group assignments are significant to improve group dynamics and participatory learning environment. Under this arrangement, library staff are involved in buddy system to learn from each other. This technique further helps in creating group dynamics, sense of volunteerism and team spirit.
Avocation : Undertaking an extra activity in addition to current duties provide ample opportunity for staff to develop their skills. For example, library staff involved in management, facilitation/coordination are presented with case studies, supervision and guidance of internees.
Field Trips : Field trips are useful tools that provide experiential learning outside the work environment. The doctrine behind this situated learning experience is to analyse the event in terms of concepts surrounding the knowledge so as to develop a deeper understanding. As part of the training workshop staff take part in a variety of trips to enhance and contextualize their learning.
Professional Skills : Training—professional skills are the foundation of success at every organization. Employees are often brought together in a formal setting to learn about technical skills like software usage, Internet browsing and so on. Professional skill training ensures greater efficiency, greater staff motivation, provision of better and higher quality of services, and to gain work related benefits also. This segment includes Automated Cataloguing, Circulation, Information Retrieval, Electronic Document Delivery and CD ROM Databases. Through the use of ICT, enhanced access to databases such as HINARI, AGORA, JSTOR, EBSCOHOST, BIOMED, AJOL and many others is guaranteed.
Various types of staff development in the library occur in various ways, which must be relevant to the organization. Onah (2013) identify staff development in two forms namely: Formal and Informal. That staff can undergo such programme hence they are set to achieve certain goals and objectives within the organization. This includes orientation programmes, induction programmes, on-the-job training, in-service training, job rotation. Justifying the needs for staff development, Craig (2016) lists nine (9) reasons for staff development to include increase in productivity; improvement in the quality of work and morale; development of new skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude. Others include correct use of new tools, machines, process methods or modification thereof; reduction of waste, accident, turn-over, and other overhead costs. Another reason is to fight obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, market and capital management. This brings the incumbent to a level of performance for the job, development of replacements, preparing people for advancement, improving manpower development and ensuring continuity of leadership and the survival and growth of library/organization. According to Uzohuo (2017), methods used for staff development include lecture method, discussion method and job rotation. The type of staff development programmes differs from one library to another and are designed to update librarians for greater efficiency and effective services.
The essence of staff training and development is to enhance job performance. Performance can generally be defined from three levels: organization, team and individual. It can simply be regarded as the record of outcome achieved. Organizational performance depends on how the leaders perceive the organizational goals. Kristen (2015) define job performance as work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities are executed. The decisions as to what an organisation wants its employees to do lie with the leaders in the organisation. In the library, job performance involves all aspects, which directly or indirectly affect and relate to the work of the librarians geared towards satisfying the needs of the library users. Performance means both behaviour and results. Behaviour emanates from the performer and transforms performance from abstraction to action. Uzohuo (2017) define librarian job performance as the ability of the librarians to communicate with library users and help them understand how to source for information based on their skills, adaptability, creativity, and innovatively.
Librarians need training in group dynamics, interpersonal relations, and in systems to understand better how all parts of their library fit together and affect each other. Training play a key role in ensuring that librarians are armed with competent skills that will enhance the provision of effective library services to meet the client‘s changing information needs (Steed, 2010). Training and development is an effective tool to equip or propel employees to improve their performance. Librarians’ job performance can come through basic knowledge of computers and their capabilities. It can also come with competency with search engines, Internet facilities e-mail, Internet navigator tools, web browsers and web file formats; database software; Internet development and management know-how, and human management (Pfeffer, 2014). Librarians that are trained are able to become proactive, creative, and innovative. This is because diligence, zealousness and proactive behaviourspur the librarian to persevere in challenges that will result from the deployment of new technology and enable him to resist any detractor or inhibiting reactions of other stakeholders. In this study, job performance of a librarian is conceptualised as the degree to which a librarian understands work related activities of the library in terms of information provision, retrieval, dissemination and use, and how well that information related activities are executed to achieve the goals and objectives of the library.
Effect of Staff Training and Development on Librarian’s Performance
Staff training and development programmes in the university library do not only help staff to meet the challenges of providing information to support the academic programmes of the university, it also helps to sustain the growth of the library, which eventually helps to improve upon the individual staff effectiveness. The studies of Asiagodo (2009) summarizes how staff training and development affects librarians’ performance which includes to provide the librarians with training and development opportunities that will enable them to update their professional knowledge, skills, and abilities for higher productivity, foster a climate that facilitates personal self-fulfilment, institutional effectiveness, creativity and system renewal. Others include, to enhance the standard of performance of librarians in the current and future jobs. It also helps maintain and increase job satisfaction, provide support for career advancement within the organization and maintain good staff morale and increased productivity.
Professional development of a librarian begins the moment he/she is inducted into the profession after graduating from the university. Formal classroom instruction in the Department of Library and Information Science covers generalized knowledge about fundamental concepts and theories of library systems and operations. Professional librarians are evaluated and promoted based on scholarship and professionalism and this requires that librarians continue to be engaged in staff training and development activities (Pan &Hovde, 2010). There is therefore, the need for professionalism in providing these library services. Professionalism in a general sense is a term that entails the art of playing expertise in one’s field; trying to meet up with the standard as demanded by the profession. Professionalism in library and information services is regarded as a ‘hidden treasure’. Librarianship is anchored on six tenets of a profession which include: professional association, assessment process for entry, code of ethics, exercise of autonomous thought and judgment, use of experts and continuing education (Yaya &Adeeko, 2015).
The Nigeria Library Association serves as the umbrella organization for persons interested in libraries, librarianship and Information Services in Nigeria. It seeks among other things to promote the establishment and development of libraries and to assist in the promotion of such legislation as may be considered necessary for the establishment, regulation and management of libraries in Nigeria. Since inception, its activities have been centred on capacity building of librarians and the development of all types of libraries for steady relevance in the society. According to Olorunsaye and Ayanyeemi (2013) the role of Nigerian Library Association is to organize workshops and short courses on the use of new technologies, management and leadership, planning, budgeting, project management, administrative and strategic planning entrepreneurship skills which include ability to practice profession on private basis, charge fees for services and are included in the library school curriculum.
The Librarians’ Registration Council of Nigeria (LRCN) was established as a parastatal of the Federal Ministry of Education by Act No 12 of 1995. The Council is charged with the responsibility of pursuing the attainment of professional excellence by determining who librarians are; the standard of knowledge and skills required for registration and practice; guidelines for accreditation and minimum standards for librarians, and maintenance of professional discipline among librarians in Nigeria. One of the major practices of the Council is to regulate the librarianship profession to promote standard through registration and certification of librarians. In order to achieve the afore-mentioned development, the Council has been involved in various collaborative activities on accreditation development of standard and continuous professional development (CPD) in library and information science profession in Nigeria. LRCN developed a model for the continuous professional development of librarians in Nigeria and established an annual calendar for the training of information professionals (Okojie & OMotosho, 2013).
The research design was survey. The study was carried out in South-South Nigeria. South-South zone is made up of six states namely: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, and Rivers State. The population of the study comprised of 102 librarians in the six federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. South-South Nigeria has a total number of six federal universities. The entire population of one hundred and two librarians working in these university libraries was used for the study. Structured questionnaire titled: ‘Influence of Staff Training and Development on Librarians’ Job performance in Federal university Libraries Questionnaire (ISTDLJP)’ was the instrument used for data collection. The instrument was personally administered to the respondents with the help of six research assistants. Out of the 102 questionnaire distributed, 92 were dully completed and returned back. Thus 92 librarians participated in the exercise which lasted for four weeks. The data generated from this study was analysed using simple percentage and descriptive statistics of mean score. Simple percentage was used to analyse Research Questions one and two respectively. Whereas in Research Questions, three and four, descriptive statistics of weighted mean scores were used for the analysis. Training and development were calibrated into extremely trained (10 and above), highly trained (7-9), moderately trained (4-6), not well trained (0-3). The cut off point for items is 2.50 which was obtained by adding all the weighted values and dividing the total by four. (4+3+2+1= 10/4). Thereafter, the mean score of 2.50 and above was regarded as agreed while those below 2.50 was regarded as disagree. This means that such programmes did not influence librarians’ job performance. The Hypotheses were tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 23) was used for data analysis. Where the p-value is less than the alpha level (p ? 0.05), the null hypotheses were rejected otherwise, but where it is equal to or greater than the alpha level, the null hypotheses were accepted.
Presentation and Analysis of Data
Data collected were analysed and presented in tables below according to the research questions that guided the study.
Research Question 1: What staff training programmes exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Table 1: Respondents’ Percentage Ratings of Staff Training Programmes that exist in federal university Libraries in South-South Nigeria
The results as shown in Table 1 indicate that all the staff training programmes listed received more than 70% positive response rating in all the university libraries studied. Visit to other libraries received the highest rating of 90.2%. This was closely followed by in-service workshop programme and job rotation each of which received 89.1%. The least rating (though still on the positive) was received by mentorship /coaching which had 78%. The analysis thus showed that all the 12 items listed were staff training programmes that exist in the six university libraries studied.
Research Question 2: What staff development programmes exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Table 2: Respondents’ Percentage Ratings of Development Programmes in Academic Libraries in South-South Nigeria
The result as shown in Table 2 indicate that all the staff development programmes listed in the table received more than 80% positive response rating from librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. This indicates that they are highly developed. Long distance learning ranked first with 97.8% level of existence. Publication/ Research ranked second with 94.5%. Next in ranking was professional association, job enlargement and institutional education development programmes, all with 92.3%. All the 15 development programmes received high rating indicating that they exist in all the university libraries studied.
Research Question 3: What is the job performance mean scores of librarians in federal university libraries based on existing staff training received?
Table 3: Job performance mean scores of librarians in federal universities based on existing staff training received
The analysis as shown in Table 3 is the response rating of librarian’s job performance mean score of the trainings they have received and its resultant effect. The result shows that the training has great influence on the librarians understanding of the information needs of users. It has the highest mean score of 3.56. The training also has high influence on understanding the information sources and searching / retrieval of information both of which received a mean score of 3.52. Items listed in Table 3 also show that four items namely, understanding the information sources based on needs, acquisition of information, meeting information needs of users and enhanced information literacy were not positively influenced by training. They all received negative mean rating of 2.30 – 1.74.
Research Question 4: What is the job performance mean scores of librarians in federal universities based on existing staff development programmes received?
Table 4: Job performance mean scores of librarians in federal universities based on existing staff development programmes received
Result of the analysis in Table 4 shows the job performance mean score of librarians in federal university libraries based on the staff development programmes received. The response rate is on the influence the staff development programmes have had on their job performance. Out of the 11 staff development programmes listed, only 7 received positive mean score rating. The highest rating was received by meeting information needs of users with mean score rating of 3.53. This was closely followed by evaluation of information which received a mean score rating of 3.45. Out of the 11 items listed in Table 4, there are four items that received negative mean score ranging from 2.36-1.75. These are understanding the information needs of users, understanding information sources, organization of information and information search/ retrieval of information. Organization of information received the least mean score rating of 1.75.
Test of Hypotheses
There is no significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of the staff training received in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Table 5: ANOVA analysis of significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of the staff training received in federal university libraries
The result presented in hypothesis 1 in Table 5 revealed significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff training received in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. The analysis revealed that p-value (0.10) is greater than alpha level (F = 51.86, p .10 > .05). This result indicates that there was no significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of the training received.
There is no significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of development programmes received in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Table 6: ANOVA analysis of significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of the development programmes received in federal university libraries
The result presented in hypothesis 2 in Table 6 revealed significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on extent of staff development programmes received in federal university libraries in South- South Nigeria. The analysis revealed that p-value (0.061) is greater than alpha level (F = 35.202, p .061 > .05). This result indicates that there was no significant difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of development programmes received in federal university libraries.
Summary of Findings
After the analysis, the following findings emerged:
1. Staff training programmes that exist in university libraries in South-South Nigeria include orientation, in service training, computer literacy, simulation exercise, study tour, visit to other libraries, lectures, workshop, job rotation, and teaching by example, mentorship/coaching, and on the job training among others.
2. Development programmes that exist in university libraries in South-South Nigeria include job rotation job enlargement, case study, job enlargement, case study, seminar/conference/workshop, consultancy training, publication research, institutional education, exchange/sabbatical leave, study visits, mentorship/coaching, long distance learning, professional association, self-development, and performance appraisal and seminar/conference/workshop among others.
3. Mean rating of job performance variables of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria based on staff training programmes received were high. These job performance variables include understanding the information needs of users and understanding the information sources, acquisition and organisation of information, evaluation, retrieval and timely delivery of information were high. Staff training has great influence on job performance of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
4. Mean rating of job performance variables of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria based on staff development programmes received were high. These job performance variables include understanding the information needs of users and understanding the information sources, acquisition and organisation of information, evaluation, retrieval and timely delivery of information were high. Staff development has a great influence on job performance of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
5. There is no significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff training received.
6. There is no significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of staff development programmes received.
Discussion of Result
Staff training that exist in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria .
Data analysis in research question one revealed that librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria agreed that staff training programmes found in these libraries are orientation, in service training, mentorship/coaching, on the job training, computer literacy, simulation exercise, study tour, visit to other libraries, lectures, in-service workshop, job rotation, and teaching by example respectively. This finding is in line with Adeniji, Babalola and Adeniji (2012) finding that available training programmes in the universities libraries include induction/orientation of new staff, on the job training, off the job training and internal training among others. In agreement, Ukwuoma and Akanwa (2009) also found out that orientation, on the job training, job rotation, in service training, study leave and fellowship, seminars, conferences and workshops were the training programmes found in university libraries.
Staff development programmes that exist in in federal university libraries in South-South
The result of the analysis in research question 2 reveal that librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria agreed that staff development programmes found in libraries studied include under study, job rotation, job enlargement, case study, seminar/conference/workshop, consultant training, publication research, institutional education, exchange/sabbatical leaves, study visits, mentorship/coaching, long distance learning, professional association, self-development, and performance appraisal respectively. This finding agrees with Ojowhor (2016) who found that seminars, workshops, orientation courses, in service programmes, induction and regular programmes were development programmes in university libraries. The finding also corroborates the findings of Eze (2012) which revealed that classroom training, job rotation, publication and research, coaching, conferences, professional associations and distance learning were staff development programmes found in the university libraries.
Librarians job performance based on the staff training available
The result on the influence of librarians’ job performance based on staff training they received shows that librarians were of the view that staff training helped to improve their job performance. The librarians agreed that training programmes have helped them in understanding the information needs of users and understanding the information sources, acquisition and organisation of information, evaluation, retrieval and timely delivery of information. The resultant effect is that the librarians have been trained to provide library services required by library users of the federal university libraries in South South Nigeria. Furthermore, the study found out that there is significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of their staff training. This implies that staff training given to librarians has to a great extent, affected their job performance. Expectedly, each staff training given to the librarians has effect on the job performance of librarians and hence difference in the mean scores. This finding also agrees with Nkebem (2006) finding that orientation, in-service training, on- the-job training and provision for in-service training boosts the morale of librarians towards their job. The study also corroborates the study of Abubakar (2016) in a study on motivational factors as correlate of job performance of librarians in state-owned universities in North-Central Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there is significant relationship between staff training and job performance of librarians in state owned universities in North- Central Nigeria.
Librarian’s job performance based on the staff development programmes received.
The study found that there is significance difference in the job performance mean scores of librarians based on the extent of development programmes received. This shows that development programmes given to librarians have some influenced on librarians’ job performance in the understanding the information needs of the users, understanding information sources, understanding information sources based on needs, acquisition of information, organization of information resources and so on. Staff development programmes received also positive influence in enhanced information literacy, timely delivery of information and enhanced user satisfaction.
This finding is in line with Saka and Haruna (2013) findings that Seminars/conferences and workshop attendance enhances job performance of staff. As the staff development programmes collectively increased, the job performance of staff tends to be higher. The increase in opportunities for the various staff development programmes led to higher job performance on the part of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria. This finding also agrees with Ashante (2014) findings that development programmes have positive statistical relationship with job performance.
Based on the findings of this study, it would be concluded that the staff training programmes found in the libraries of South-South Nigeria are orientation or training in service training, mentorship/coaching, on the job training, computer literacy, simulation exercise, study tour, visit to other libraries, lectures, in-service workshop, job rotation, and teaching by example respectively. Similarly, the development programmes found in university libraries studied in South-South Nigeria include, job rotation job enlargement, case study, seminar/conference/workshop, consultant training, publication research, institutional education, exchange/sabbatical leaves, study visits, mentorship/coaching, long distance learning, professional association, self-development, and performance appraisal respectively.
Results from the findings revealed that staff training and development have a great influence on job performance mean scores of librarians in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Implication of Findings
From the findings, staff training and development enhance librarians’ job performance and consequently the quality of service they render to both staff and students of the university. Non availability of programmes or non-participation in these programmes may lead to lethargy and obsolesce. This will have negative effect both on the librarians and library services in federal university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
Based on the findings of this study, the following were recommended:
1. University library management in South-South Nigeria should make conscious effort to ensure that all staff training packages that exist in university libraries are provided for their staff to enhance better job performance.
2. Staff development programmes in university libraries equip libraries both for present and future man power development. Hence librarians should be sponsored to attend such programmes.
3. Staff training and development should be part of human resources policies in university libraries in South-South Nigeria.
4. Staff training and development should be a regular exercise in university libraries in South-South Nigeria. As such it should be a part and parcel of the Human Resources Management Policy in these institutions.
5. Some of these staff training and development are capital intensive as such university libraries should strategize on how to raise funds both internally and externally to sponsor their staff to attend and benefit from these programmes.
6. Participation in staff training and development should be made a pre-condition for staff promotion.
7. University libraries in South-South Nigeria should device means of evaluating the impact of these programmes on librarians who participated in these programmes.
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