Solvents comparative extraction performance for the synthesis of potential Terminalia catappa transformer oil


  • Chinedu M. Agu Chemical Engineering Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
  • Matthew C. Menkiti Chemical Engineering Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
  • Albert C. Agulanna Materials and Energy Technology Department, Projects Development Institute (PRODA), Emene Industrial Area, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Innocent E. Nweke Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Onitsha Sub-region, Anambra State, Nigeria.


Terminaliacatappa L., Solvent extraction, Kinetics, Thermodynamics


This work focuses on the extractive influence of n-hexane and petroleum ether on Terminalia catappa Kernel (TCK) oil yield.
The TCK oil were characterized using standard methods, Gas chromatographic (GC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
analyses. Results indicated that time and particle size effects were significant while temperature was not. Pseudo-second order
kinetic model fits more suitably, compared to hyperbolic model. The process Gibbs free energy, entropy and enthalpy values at
55°C for n-hexane and petroleum ether were -28.76KJ/mol, 0.643KJ/mol, 182.81KJ/mol and -30.42KJ/mol, 0.686KJ/mol,
195.18KJ/mol ,respectively, indicating spontaneous, irreversible, and endothermic process. N-hexane gave optimally higher oil
yield of 60.45 % at 55 °C, 0.5 mm and 150 min.