The Application of Whole Genome Sequencing in Medical and Pharmaceutical field
Keywords:Whole Genome Sequencing , genome, drug metabolism, disease pathway, phenotypic characteristics
Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is a high throughput process utilized to obtain the nucleotide bases that constitutes a genome. The Sanger Technique was used to sequence the first human genome; however the limitations include inability to sequence more than few genes per time and it cannot detect structural rearrangement. The method also has far reaching cost implications. The New Generation Sequencing Platform has further lend credence to WGS, as sequencing can be carried out in a shorter period of time with accuracy hence a great improvement in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. This also needs to correspond with effective data analysis and interpretation. This method has proved useful as it can be used to compare bacterial strains that have a divergence at one nucleotide base, transmission, Virulence, phenotypic characteristics can be deduced. Various strains can be analyzed via a single process and it is an essential tool in clinical diagnosis and in monitoring the outbreak of a new disease. This is important in handling multidrug resistance strains of bacteria. In addition, it equally helps in the identification of drug response markers on drug target. Moreover, drug metabolism or disease pathway can enhance development of drug tailored to specific individuals for specific purposes, hence the ability to define a population genetically.