• Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 4 No. 2, March-April (2024)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 4 No. 1, January-February (2024)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 6, November-December (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 5, September-October (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 4, July-August (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 3, May-June (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 2, March-April (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 2 No. 6, November-December (2022)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 3 No. 1, January-February (2023)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 2 No. 5, September-October (2022)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 2 No. 4, July-August (2022)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 2 No. 3, May-June (2022)

  • Journal of Current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 2 No. 2, Mar-April (2022)

  • Jan-Feb
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  • The front page design

    Journal of current Biomedical Research
    Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017)


    An Overview of Journal of Current Biomedical Research (Nnamdi Azikiwe University University)





    Introduction: Journal of Current Biomedical Research (JCBR), a peer-reviewed, open access quarterly biomedical publication, intends to provide both African and international biomedical researchers with an open forum to disseminate important new information about biomedical research. CBR covers the developments in multidisciplinary areas of biology and biomedicine. The journal encourages the submission of research letters, presenting preliminary research that may stimulate further investigation of potentially relevant findings, as well as studies with negative findings.  CBR publishes original research articles, review articles and case reports, and Letter to the Editor is also accepted. Manuscripts with original ideas and/or approaches that bridge different fields are considered with priority.

    Goals and Targets

    JCBR aims to to acheive the following goals:

    • To report on the latest research achievements and developments.
    • To publish studies that are "under-published" because of limited access to resources such as English language support, perceived lack of interest because of negative results, or because the study focused on problems that are uncommon in resource-rich countries
    • To strengthen exchanges between researchers and industry.
    • To contribute to the progress of biology and biomedicine.
    • To provide high quality platform for publishing original research works and review articles.
    • To build a strong network with local and international scientists.


    Papers are expected from the following fields but not limited to:

    1. anatomic pathology
    2. biochemistry
    3. biomedical ethics
    4. clinical research
    5. genetics
    6. immunology
    7. microbiology and virology
    8. molecular, cellular and cancer biology
    9. neurosciences
    10. pharmacology
    11. physiology

    Frequency of Publication

    Journal of Current Biomedical Journal is a quarterly Journal with four issues per year. The maiden edition will be published in June, 2017.

    Guidelines for Contributions

    Types of submissions

    Current Biomedical Journal publishes original research, review articles and meta-analyses, commentaries, brief reports, research letters and letters to the Editor. All manuscripts are peer reviewed by at least 2 independent researchers for relevance, technical accuracy, methodological rigor, clarity, and objectivity using a double-blind review process. A double-blind peer review process means that neither the author nor the reviewers are aware of each other's identity. After a technical check by the Managing Editor, new submissions are sent to the Editor-in-Chief to select the appropriate Handling Editor. The Handling Editor manages the peer review process, which includes identifying at least 2 independent researchers, who may include a member or members of the Editorial Board. Upon receipt of the reviews, the Handling Editor makes a decision to accept, reject, or request revision. The decision is passed to the Editor-in-Chief, who evaluates the decision and sends notification to the author.

    Ethics in publishing

    The work described in an article for submission must have been carried out in accordance with following:

    1. The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans
    2. EC Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments
    3. Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals This must be stated at an appropriate point in the article.

    Clinical Research

    Any clinical research involving humans must undergo review by an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee. Patients must give written informed consent unless a waiver of consent is allowed by the IRB. Patients must be informed of any real or potential conflicts of interest, including compensation of the investigator and potential costs to the patient that may result from their participation in the study. The amount of the remuneration of the investigators for their participation in pre- or post-marketing studies must be approved by the IRB/ethics committee. If the design of a prospective pre- or post-marketing study calls for a treatment intervention such as a switch or withdrawal, then criteria must be established a priori for patient selection, the implementation of the intervention, and assessment of success/failure of such intervention. Such criteria must be scientifically justified, documented, uniformly applied and enforced, and clearly reported in the study report. Additionally, the patient or his/her insurance provider will not be required to pay for costs related to prospective interventions, such as those that may result from a drug switch or withdrawal.

    All other studies that involve identifiable human subjects, including retrospective studies, chart reviews, post-marketing surveillance studies, or government mandated phase IV trials require IRB or ethics committee approval or waiver.

    In each case, detailed IRB or ethics committee information should be clearly stated in the Methods section.

    Studies that only utilize pre-existing, de-identified patient data are not required to seek IRB approval.


    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement'. Authors sign an exclusive license agreement, where authors have copyright but license exclusive rights in their article to the publisher. In this case authors have the right to:

    • Share their article in the same ways permitted to third parties under the relevant user license.
    • Retain patent, trademark and other intellectual property rights (including research data).
    • Proper attribution and credit for the published work.

    Role of funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Open access

    This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge APC) of USD 100  which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution. Authors will receive payment instructions once their article is accepted.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in standard, grammatically correct English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to consult a native English speaker.


    Manuscripts can be submited  directly through this link  or through  email  to [email protected]  Direct submission speeds up the review process while submission through email delays it. S

    Preparation of manuscript

    Essential Title Page Information

    • Title:Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    • Author names and affiliations:Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a superscript Arabic numeral immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    • Corresponding author:Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    • Present/permanent address:If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


    A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. The following abstract headings should be used: BackgroundObjectivesMethodsResults, and Conclusions. Your abstract should not more than 250 words


    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British or American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods

    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Results: Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. 

    Conclusions :The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Acknowledgements: Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Conflict of InterestAt the end of the text and preceding the references section, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state. As a guideline see the ICMJE form for disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest at: In order to maintain the double blind peer review process, we recommend that first and last initials are used in place of author names within this section.

    Units: Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

     Math formulae: Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Figure captions: Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

     Tables: Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with the following symbols, in order: *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **, ††, etc. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References: This section discusses References page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet, which is the reference style adopted by JCBR. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research. References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List”, and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced.


    1. Sample Reference

    AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP. When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ).

    Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title).

    Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks:

    A comma: if the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic element or a set of closely related elements (e.g., the authors’ names).

    A semicolon: if the elements in the bibliographic group are different (e.g., between the publisher’s name and the copyright year) or if there are multiple occurrences of logically related elements within a group; also, before volume identification data.

    A colon: before the publisher’s name, between the title and the subtitle, and after a connective phrase (e.g., “In”, “Presented at”).

    See the following examples:

    1.  Wheeler T, Watkins PJ. Cardic denervation in diabetes. British Medical Journal. 1973;4:584-586.
    2. O'Keefe M, Coat S. Consulting parents on childhood obesity and implications for medical student learning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45(10), 573-576.
    1. Print Source

     Reference to Print Journals

    All references to print journals should include the following elements:

    Author’s surnames and initials

    Title of article and subtitle (as applicable)

    Abbreviated name of journal


    Volume number

    Issue number

    Part or supplement number, when pertinent

    Inclusive page numbers

    Names of journals are abbreviated and italicized (Medical Education becomes Med Educ as in example 3 below- see the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus) while digits from inclusive page numbers do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The year of the publication is followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses), followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, and the final page number, followed by a period, are set without spaces.

    1. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. The Lancet. 2008;372(9648):1502-1517.
    2. Beran RG, Braley TJ, Segal BM, Chervin RD. Sleep-disordered breathing in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2013;80(14):1354-1355.
    3. Pollart SM, Caelleigh AS. Changing conversations, changing culture: A medical education journal club. Med Educ.2011;45(11):1134.
    4. Jungang L. Investigation of Radon and Heavy Metals in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, High Lung Cancer Incidence Areas in China. J Environ Health. 2013;76(4):32-39.

     Materials with Named Authors and Group Name

    References may occur to material that is prepared by a committee or other group. The following forms should be used under such conditions:

    1. Lafeuille MH, Grittner AM, Gravel J, et al; Reliant Medical Group Informatics. Opportunities for improving attainment of quality measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Managed Care. 2014;20(1):S5-S24.

     References to Print Books

    All references to print books should include the following elements:

    Authors’ surnames and first and middle initials

    Chapter title (when cited)

    Surname and first and middle initials of book authors or editors (or translators, if any)

    Title of book and subtitle, if any

    Volume number and volume title, when there is more than 1 volume

    Edition number (do not indicate first edition)

    Place of publication

    Country names must be spelled out when they appear alone.

    For U.S. States and Canadian Provinces, provide the two-letter postal abbreviation available through either the USPS or Canada Post.

    Name of publisher

    Year of copywright

    Page numbers, when specific pages are cited

    When referring to an entire book, not pages or specific sections, use the following format:

    References should include the last name and first and middle initials of the author(s), italicized title case format for all titles (capitalize all words except prepositions such as of, between, through), articles (such as a, the, and an), and conjunctions (such as but, and, or; however, capitalize them if they begin the title or the subtitle) the city and state of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication/creation.

    1. Silverstein A, Silverstein VB, Nunn LS. Cancer. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books; 2006.
    2. Maul-Mellott SK, Adams JN. Childhood Cancer: A Nursing Overview. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 1987.

    Reference to a Chapter in a Book

    Chapters from books should be capitalized in the same format as journal articles (sentence case format) and should not use quotation marks. Additionally, inclusive page numbers for the each chapter should be provided.

    The title of the book, however, should be title cased and italicized, following the print book format.

    A colon should follow the publication date and no space should be provided between the colon or the page number(s) and hypen.

    1. Yagyu S, Iehara T. MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma: Detection of tumor-derived cell-free DNA in serum for predicting prognosis of neuroblastoma. In Hayat MA, ed. Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis.Dordrecht, NY: Springer; 2013:11-17.

     Editors and Translators

    Names of editors, translators, translator-editors, or executive, consulting, and section editors are given as follows:

    1. Engel J, Pedley TA, Aicardi, J, eds. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. Vol 3.  Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

     Volume Number

    If the work cited includes more than 1 volume, use arabic numerals for volume numbers, regardless of if the publisher used roman numerals.

    1. Kurts D, Heath DA, Hines C, et al. Clinical Procedures for Ocular Examination. Vol 3. 2NDed. McGraw-Hill; 2004.

     Edition Number

    As with the volume number, use arabic numerals to indicate an edition, even if the publisher has used roman numerals , but do not indicate a first edition. If a subsequent edition is cited, the number should be given. Abbreviate “New revised edition” as “New rev ed”; “Revised edition” as “Rev ed; “American edition” as “American ed”; and British edition” as “British ed.”

    1. Barkley, R A. Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete, Authoritative Guide for Parents.Rev ed. New york, NY: Guilford press; 2000.

     Government or Agency Bulletins

    References to bulletins published by departments or agencies of a government should include the following information, in the order indicated: (1) name of author (if given); (2) title of bulletin; (3) place of publication; (4) name of issuing bureau, agency, department, or other governmental division (not that in this position, Department should be abbreviated Dept; also not that if an author supplies US Government Printing Office as the publisher, it would be preferable to obtain the name of the issuing bureau, agency, or department, if possible); (5) date of publication; (6) page numbers, if specified; (7) publication number, if any; and (8) series number if given.

    1. Visa Bulletin for April 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs; 2015. NIH Publication 79. 
      2. Shupbach J, Charity E. Hundreds of Disabled Veterans to Attend Winter Sports Clinic. Washington, DC: US Dept of Veteran Affairs; 2015.
      3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 75: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Bethesda, MD: The National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2006. 457-464.

     Theses and Dissertations

    Italicize the titles of theses and dissertations. References to theses should include the location of the university (or other institution), its name, and year of completion of thesis. If the thesis has been published, it should be treated as any other book reference.

    1. Medapati MR. Extracellular S100A4 Induces Human Thyroid Cancer Cell Migration [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba; 2013.
      2. MacKenzie MA. Comparing Heart Failure and Cancer Caregiver Satisfaction with Hospice Care. [dissertation]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2014.

     Package Inserts

    Package inserts (the printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package) may be cited as follows:

    1. BioThrax [package insert]. Lansing, MI: Emergent BioSolutions; 2012. 
      2. AFLURIA [package insert]. Victoria, Australia: bioCSL; 2014.
    1. Electronic Source

    Online Journals

    The basic format when referencing an article in an online journal is as follows:

    Author(s). Title. Journal Name [using National Library of Medicine abbreviations as mentioned above]. Year;vol(issue NO.):inclusive pages. URL [provide the URL in this field; no need to use “URL:” preceding it]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

    1. Drake AJ, Smith A, Betts PR, et al. Type 2 Diabetes in Obese White Children. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86(3), 207-208. Accessed April 5, 2015.

     Books and Books on CD-ROM

    The basic format when referencing to an Internet-based book is as follows. Note: If the reference is to the entire book, the information about chapter title and inclusive pages is not included. 

    Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright:inclusive pages. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date].

    1. Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VA.  Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Institute of Medicine; 2005. Accessed April 7, 2015.

    Web Site

    When citing data from a Web site, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown below:

    Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

    1. Living With Type 1 Diabetes. Published February 9, 2015. Accessed April 7, 2015.
    2. Why Immunize? Updated September 23, 2014. Accessed April 7, 2015.
    3. Yale University. ScienceDaily. Published January 7, 2015. Accessed April 5, 2015.

     Submission Checklist 

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

    Ensure that the following items are present:

    1. Cover letter
    • Title, authors, number of pages, and numbers of tables and figures
    • Indication that the paper has been read and approved by all authors
    • Description of how each author contributed to the manuscript and others who may have assisted
    • Name of the Special Section in which the paper is to be included, if applicable
    • Information about any previous presentation of the data (eg, at a specific meeting)
    • Information about the existence of any closely related manuscripts that have been submitted for simultaneous consideration to the same or another journal
    • Notice of any interests that might be seen as influencing the research (eg, financial interest in a test or procedure, funding by pharmaceutical companies for drug research, etc)
    • A copy of the permission granted to reproduce or adapt any copyrighted material from another source or a notice that permissions are pending
    1. Title page
    • Full title
    • All authors listed with academic degrees and affiliations
    • One author designated as Corresponding Author:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone and fax numbers
    • Keywords
    1. Manuscript
    • All figure legends(if applicable)
    • All figures(if applicable) uploaded individually
    • All tables(including title, description, footnotes) uploaded individually
    1. Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)

    Structure of the Editorial Board

    The Board comprises of the Editor-in-Chief, Managing Editor, editorial advisers, associate editors, and a Journal Secretary.

    Editors would be drawn from varied fields of Biology and Medical Sciences for critiquing and selection of best and suitable manuscripts for publication.

    The Managing Editor mans the secretariat and co-ordinates the activities of the editorial board.

    The Editorial Advisory board members are professionals in Biology and Medical Sciences that will serve in post group review meetings of the editorial board, give expert advice and corrections. 

    Editorial Board

    Editor in Chief

    Prof C.O. Esimone


    Deputy Vice Chancellor, Nnamdi Azikiwe University


    Editorial Advisers

    Prof Moji C. Adeyeye


    Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Tech, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    Prof Peter Proksch


    Department of Pharmaceutical Biology & Biotechnology, University of Dusseldorf, Germany

    Prof Joseph Ikechebelu


    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital



    Dr  Amobi M. Ezenekwe


    South Bernd Medical Center, South Bend, IN, USA

    Dr Alex Ochem


    International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Cape Town, SouthAfrica

    Prof Nnameke J. Okoye


    Department of Biology, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA

    Dr. E.C. Nwanegbo


    Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburh, PA, USA

    Prof Iruka N. Okeke


    Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    Dr Martin Ositadinma Ifeanyichukwu


    Department of Immunology and Haematology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University

    Prof  Johnson Afonne


    Department of Pharmacology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University


    Managing Editor

    Dr Kenneth G. Ngwoke

    Managing Editor

    Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry,  Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria