Standardization of Aneilema lanceolatum as a potential medicinal plant
Keywords:Standardization; Aneilema lancolatum; Aerial part; Physicochemical; Microscopic; Phytochemical
Aneilema lanceolatum is a weed plant commonly found in farm lands and bushes around tropical African countries. The plant is utilized as livestock feeds and in traditional medicine in northern Nigeria for the treatment and management of pains, infectious diseases and as sexual stimulant. The present study was aimed at establishing microscopic, physicochemical and phytochemical constituents of the plant. The aerial parts of the plant was collected in May, 2021 from Kubanni, Sabon-gari local government area of Kaduna state and were identified and authenticated at the Herbarium unit of the Department of Botany, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria and a voucher number ABU0533 was assigned. The physicochemical parameters, microscopic evaluation and qualitative and quantitative screening of the plant were carried out using standard procedures. The stomatal index of the upper epidermis (18.60±1.91) is lower than the lower epidermis (22.10±2.03) with palisade ratio of 10.07±0.90. The microscopic of the stem and leaf revealed presence of epidermis, xylem and phloem. Moisture content of the powdered plants was 1.23±0.05% with water and alcohol extractives values of 20.40±0.03% and 12.40±0.05% respectively. The total ash, water-soluble and acid-insoluble ash values are 5.52±0.02, 2.05±0.02% and 2.62±0.01% respectively. The microscopic characters revealed presence of wavy and polygonal shapes of epidermal cells with anomocytic type of stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies revealed presence of saponins (10.61%), alkaloids (0.98%), terpenoids (0.10%) and flavonoids (4.08%). The pharmacognostic parameters of the aerial parts of A. lanceolatum were established.