Evaluation of gastroprotective and phytochemical properties of Terminalia superba engl. & diels (combretaceae) stem bark methanol extract
Keywords:Terminalia, Phytochemistry, Gastric ulcer, Ulcer induction, Ulcer treatment
Peptic ulcer is a disease that is affecting a large part of the population world-wide irrespective of the race and tribe. Advances made in the search for an ideal or perfect antiulcer drug has been eroded by cost, side effects and treatment failure. Search for cheap, safe, and effective drugs continues. It is the aim of the research to identify the secondary metabolites present in Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels (Combretaceae) stem bark methanol extract and investigate its gastroprotective properties. Methanol extract of T. superba was prepared by cold maceration extraction method using methanol. The extract was concentrated and subjected to acute toxicity test using Lorke’s method, and phytochemical investigation using standard methods. Gastro-protective activity was investigated by three models: aspirin- induced gastric ulcer, hypothermic restraint stress-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The extract was safe in mice at doses below 2154 mg per Kg body weight and the extract contained the major secondary metabolites-alkaloids, flavonoids tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids. Pre-treatment with the extract reduced gastric ulceration in rats. There was a 77.3% reduction in the aspirin model, 75.2 % in the ethanol model and an 84 % in the Hypothermic restraint stress-induced ulcers model. There was a statistically significant difference at p= .05 between the treated groups and the un-treated group The methanol extract of Terminalia superba bark is rich in the major secondary metabolites and has gastro-protective a property.