Assessment of the physicochemical properties, heavy metal concentrations, and bacteriological quality of borehole water in Etsako Central Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria
Keywords:physicochemical, heavy metals, heterotrophic, potulent, contamination
Borehole water remains one of the principal sources of drinking water in Etsako Central Local Government Area; therefore, it is very crucial to evaluate the quality of these various borehole water sources. This study is aimed at investigating the physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, Calcium hardness, Magnesium hardness, salinity, appearance, odour, Sulphate, Nitrate, Carbonate and Bicarbonate, Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium contents, heavy metals (Cadmium, Arsenic and Lead) concentrations and bacteriological qualities (total heterotrophic bacteria count and total coliform count) of groundwater from twelve (12) boreholes in different locations in Edo North Senatorial District (Etsako West, Etsako Central, and Etsako East Local Government Areas). All parameters evaluated in-situ were done using standard methods in the laboratory. All physicochemical properties analyzed in this study complied with the recommended standards except for pH which is acidic. The heavy metal concentrations and the total heterotrophic bacterial count mean values exceeded the WHO permissible guideline value. Seven (7) genera of bacteria isolates namely; Enterococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Neisseria spp, Klebsiella spp, Yersinia pestis, E. coli, and Streptococcus spp were identified. This study reveals that the quality of groundwater from different boreholes across the Etsako Central Local Government Area is not fit for consumption due to the presence of increased levels of trace elements contaminations and high bacteria load. Therefore, it is recommended that adequate treatment of the water from different borehole sources by boiling or chlorination prior to consumption should be carried out.