Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic studies of the leaf of Detarium microcarpum
Keywords:Detarium microcarpum, Phytochemicals, Pharmacopoeia, Standardisation, Marcoscopical
Detarium microcarpum is a shrub that grows wildly in Nigeria. There are several ethnomedicinal claims on its activity. This has necessitated the need to establish its pharmacopoeia standards that could be used as reference guide for the identification and assessment of its quality and purity. This study aims to evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of D. microcarpum leaf and determine the phytochemical composition of the methanolic leaf extract. WHO guideline was used to establish the pharmacognostic standards of the leaf and preliminary phytochemical screenings, physical constants and elemental analysis were conducted using established protocols. The macroscopical analysis of the leaf showed that it is green in colour, odourless, tasteless, with thickly leathery glabrescent surface and an ovate to elliptical shape. The base is rounded and the apex is largely emarginated. Microscopical observation revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata on the lower surface which were largely absent on the upper surface. The moisture content, total ash value, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were 6.4±0.05, 5.15±0.351.68±0.53 and 3.93±0.08 respectively. This shows that the inorganic matter content adhered to the leaf were within approved limit. The physical constants were within the limits of reference standards. Macro and microelements were present in the sample with toxic levels of mercury and arsenic observed. The macroscopical, microscopical and physical parameters of the leaf of D. microcarpum observed have revealed information that could be used in its standardisation.