Preliminary Evaluation of the Anti-sickling and Polymerization Time Rate of Aqueous Extracts of Beta Vulgaris (Beetroot) on Sickle Cell Disorder (In-vitro model)
Keywords:Beetroot, sickle cell reversal, osmotic fragility, polymerization rate
Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive genetic haematological disorder. Therapeutic approaches involve symptomatic management using conventional pharmacologic agents and substances of plant origin. This work was aimed at evaluating the in-vitro anti-sickling and polymerisation time rate effects of aqueous extracts of Beta vulgaris(beetroot)on sickle cell disease. Aqueous extraction of the beetroot was carried out. Phytochemical tests were conducted. Blood samples were collected from sickle cell patients. Osmotic fragility test and percentage haemolysis in different concentrations of NaCl (0 to 0.9 %w/v) were evaluated. Anti-sickling evaluation was done by inducing sickling in cells using 2 % sodium metabisulphite, while polymerization rate was determined. Phytochemical tests results revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins and carbohydrate. The beetroot extract showed a significant reduction of the sickled cells from 89.1 to 35.6 % by the 5 %w/v beetroot and from 89.1 to 36.47 % by 2.5 %w/v beetroot, while the chemical standard (para hydroxybenzoic acid) reduced the sickled cells from 89.1 to 30.9 %. Polymerization rate was reduced from 1.52 to 1.17 % by the 5 % w/v beetroot and from 1.66 to 1.22 % by 2.5 %w/v beetroot over 30 min, while para hydroxybenzoic acid reduced the polymerization rate from 1.66 to 1.19 %. Beetroot aqueous extract reduced the percentage of sickled cells, rate of haemoglobin polymerization, and osmotic fragility of sickled red blood cells with results comparable to standard treatment agents. Aqueous extract of beetroot may be used as alternative agent to para hydroxybenzoic acid in sickle cell disease management.