THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTESTINAL PARASITES AND IMPACT OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTION AMONG DIARRHOEAL - INFECTED HIV PATIENTS VISITING THE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, BENIN-CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA
Keywords:diarrhea, intestinal parasites, HIV/AIDS
Background of the study: Diarrhea is one of the world's worst health problems, especially in immuno compromised persons.
Aim: The study's main goal was to determine the prevalence ofintestinal parasites and the clinical impact of Cryptosporidium parvum in HIV-positive diarrhea patients at the Specialist Hospital in Benin City, Edo State, South-Central Nigeria.
Materials and methods: Stool concentration and modified Zehl-Neilson staining was used to evaluate 196 stool samples for intestinal parasites.
Results: A total of 196 HIV/AIDS-related diarrhea patients (116 women and 80 men) were examined for intestinal parasites. The overall parasite prevalence, density, and age prevalence among diarrhea-infected HIV/AIDS patients were 21.35% and 5.0%, respectively, with Ascaris lumbricodes (5.6%), Cryptosporidium parvum (5.1%), and Entamoeba histolytica (5.1%) being the second most frequent intestinal parasites surveyed. HIV-infected people of all ages had 5.0% Cryptosporidium-related diarrhea. Patients aged 46–55 years had 2.5% of all cases, whereas those aged 6–15 years, 16–25 years, and 56–60 years had 0%. Cryptosporidium was more common in women (4.0%vs.1.0%) than in men. Both groups showed a statistical difference (P 0.05). Regimen 1A had the most cryptosporidium (3.1%). HIV-related diarrhea was more common among patients with CD4 levels below 350 (4.1% vs. 1.0%, respectively) compared with CD4+ > 350 (136 individuals), who made up the bulk of those tested with a statistical difference between groups. HIV patients with only bloody diarrhea had a 3.1% prevalence of cryptosporidium, compared to 0% in those with bloody diarrhea and mucus or only mucus; the odd ratio (OR) was 1.06 (95% CI 0.20–85.27) with P> 0.05. Cryptosporidium oocysts have been found in HIV-infected patients' feces at the Specialist Hospital in Benin City, Edo State, suggesting a relation to HIV diarrhea, particularly in the late stages of illness. It causes 5.0% of diarrhea in this population.
Conclusion: Cryptosporidiosis is frequent in HIV-infected diarrhea patients. Thus, HIV and immuno suppressed patients' diarrhea treatments should incorporate this study's findings.